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Innu | Naskapi | Atikamekw | Wabanaki | Delaware | Algonquin | Mashpee | Passamaquoddy | Wampanoag | Mi'kmaq | Penobscot | Maliseet | Muscogee | Menominee
Alternate forms: Menomini, Têtes-de-Boules, Têtes de Boules, Tete de Boule
Language(s): English | Abenaki, Eastern
Date: 1920-1940
Description: The materials from Algonquian speaking cultures is quite extensive, though scattered, in the A. Irving Hallowell Papers. One of the strengths is Hallowell's very fine black and white portraits of indigenous peoples located in Series VI, Subseries F, which includes images of Mashpee, Mohegan, Montagnais, Naskapi, Womponowag, Nipissing, Atikamekw, Series V contains some generalized materials such "Algoquian Cross Cousin Marriage," Speck's studies of northern Algoquian hunting territories, and Algonquin mythology and history. The folders entitled "Eastern Woodlands" in box 26 contain more culturally specific materials such as a Penobscot vocabulary list, Innu and Naswkapi material culture, and Delaware religions and ceremonies, although many of these are quite brief. The correspondence, in Series I, includes a letter from John Swanton discussing bear ceremonialism in Muscogee culture. George Herzog's correspondence includes Penobscot and Maliseet scores of war dance songs. There is also a letter from Jeffrey Zelitch, dated 1969, describing traditional ceremonies on the Lakota Rosebud reservation just before the American Indian Movement begins. George Spindler's lettter to describes a Medicine Lodge ceremony among the Menomini.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)

Naskapi | Yurok
Language(s): English
Date: 1918-1945 and undated
Type:Text
Extent: 10 items
Description: A variety of materials relating to Speck's study of diverse Algonquian peoples, cultures, and languages. Includes his "Remnants of the Eastern Indian Tribes," a brief discussion of location of New England Algonquians; his favorable review of John M. Cooper, "Snares, Deadfalls, and other Traps of Northern Algonquians and Northern Athapascans" [Printed, Speck (1939).]; a "Table of Double Curve Motif," charting techniques and variations of motifs of various Northwestern, Iroquoian, and central Algonquian peoples; a manuscript draft and additions of "Terms of relationship and the family territorial band among the Northeastern Algonquins," [Printed, Speck (1918).]; letters from Alanson Skinner challenging Speck's ethnic position of the Southeastern Algonquian on meaning of Eskimo-type artifacts found in Algonquian site in New York (State); materials from Eva L. Butler, including two pamphlets containing transcriptions of historical letters, principally from the Connecticut State Library--"Colonial Letters of our Ancestors" and "Letters of the Indians"--and "Botany and ethnozoology of the New England Indians," a bibliography of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century sources for ethnobotantical and ethnozoological references; letters from Edward Sapir concerning Speck (1918a), particularly Yurok comparisons, his excitement about reduction of language stocks, and possible typographical errors; and letters from Carl F. Voegelen concerning the usefulness of Speck's Naskapi material for comparative study of Algonquian languages and seeking an article on process by which Algonquian languages become extinct.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Algonquin | Naskapi | Cree | Nipissing | Ojibwe | Rama | Chibcha | Maya | Haudenosaunee | Ktunaxa
Alternate forms: Ojibwa, Iroquois, Kutenai
Language(s): English | French
Date: 1912-1941 and undated
Extent: 7 items
Description: Materials relating to both Algonquin and related Algonquian peoples, cultures, and languages. Includes Speck's notes on artifacts found near Lake Abitibi and in the Nipissing district; his Seven Islands field notes, including texts with interlinear translations, house data, names of animals, and a letter in French from Marie Louise Ambroise; abstracts of Speck's published works on the Rama-Chibcha of Nicaragua, River Desert Algonquins, Southern Ontario Indians, Maya, and others; sketches and comments on shoulder blade divination (scapulimancy), including notes on deer drives (including an undated note from A. Irving Hallowell) and the distribution of artifacts among Algonquin, Naskapi, and Mistassini peoples; two field notebooks containing (1) linguistic notes and informant and population data for Waswanipi, Abitibi, Temiskaming [Timiskaming], Nipissing, Algonquian and (2) Temiskaming ethnography, Wisiledjak (Wiskyjack) [Wisakedjak, a manitou] text (in English), Temagami ethnology and texts (in English), and one Iroquois legend; general information on birch-bark containers, including 37 photographs and 40 pages of notes relating to Algonquin, Cree, Ojibwe and Ktunaxa specimens, and a letter from Bella Weitzner; and a letter from A. G. Bailey sending Speck a copy of his book on Algonquians.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Catawba | Houma | Pamunkey | Cheraw | Yuchi | Cherokee | Innu | Naskapi | Dakota | Wataree | Creek | Shawnee | Haudenosaunee | Tutelo | Powhatan
Alternate forms: Montagnais-Naskapi, Sioux, Iroquois
Language(s): English | Catawba
Date: 1914-1947
Type:Text
Extent: 21 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's study of Catawba history, language, and culture. This includes Speck's correspondence with indigenous consultants such as Red Thunder Cloud, Chief Sam Blue, and Leola Blue (Catawba) and Will West Long and Climbing Bear (Cherokee); correspondence with other anthropologists and linguists, such as John Reed Swanton, William N. Fenton, Erminie Wheeler-Voegelin, C.F. Voegelin, Morris Swadesh, A. I. Hallowell, Mary Haas, and others; genealogies of twentieth-century Catawba consultants; a Catawba bibliography; notes on topics including Catawba division of time, travel and expedition, food resources, racial status in the South, and notes, possibly for a lecture, titled "The Catawba-A Small Nation Deflated"; a University of Pennsylvania student's essay on Catawba tribal correspondence with J. Walter Fewkes about Speck's Catawba field trips; field notebooks devoted to ethnologic notes, vocabulary, texts, songs, and other linguistic and cultural data; and collections of notes devoted to Catawba language and texts, general ethnological notes, and miscellaneous notes. Some of the notes and notebooks and much of the correspondence mentions other indigenous groups as well.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Cree | Innu | Naskapi
Alternate forms: Montagnais, Nehiyaw
Language(s): English | Cree | Innu-aimun
Date: 1911-1931, 1936, 1938-1948
Extent: 6+ folders; 60+ photographs; 1 film
Description: The Cree material in the Frank Speck papers are scattered around multiple sections of the finding aid, mostly in Subcollection I, Series I. In this series, see item II(2A5), containing correspondence from P.G. Downes to Speck regarding Cree in Quebec. See item II(2F3), which includes notes from A. irving Hallowell to Speck regarding field work visiting Sweet Grass Cree, mentioning attitude of Cree to Leonard Bloomfield. Item II(4B9c) contains Speck's field notes on the Mistassini band, including notes on relationship between Cree and Montagnais languages, as well as museum specimens. Item II(2G1) includes Naskapi names in Cree syllabary; the Lord's Prayer in Cree; miscellaneous syllabary Cree words, and images of 79 pictographs. In Subcollection I, Series II, see correspondence with Claude Schaeffer regarding Rocky Boy Cree, and correspondence with Paul A. W. Wallace regarding Cree tales (Wissakutchek) collected by Edward Ahenakew in Alberta. In Subcollection I, Series III, there are 4 "Cree" photograph folders containing approximately 60 photographs. See also "Naskapi films," located in Subcollection II, Series IV, Photographs and Video, which includes some footage of some Cree people.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Innu | Naskapi
Alternate forms: Montagnais
Language(s): English
Date: 1919
Extent: 30+ photographs
Description: The Innu materials in the Hallowell Papers include 30+ photographs in Series VI, Subseries D, from Lac St-Jean (Mashteuiatsh) and unidentified Naskapi communities.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)

Innu | Naskapi
Alternate forms: Montagnais, Montagnais-Naskapi
Language(s): English | Innu-aimun | Naskapi
Date: 1910s-1940s
Extent: 1.5 linear feet; 500+ photographs; 10+ maps; 1 film
Description: The Innu and Naskapi materials in the Frank Speck Papers are extensive and found to some degree in most sectionsn of the finding aid. The majority of these materials are identified by Speck as "Montagnais-Naskapi," though they include materials relating to Innu peoples from throughout Québec and Labrador, particularly the communities in the area of Lac St-Jean (Mashteuiatsh; usually given as "Lake St. John" by Speck), St-Augustin (usually "St. Augustine" in Speck); and Naskapi communities in northern and central Labrador. The main body of field work manuscript material is found in Subcollection I, Series II, especially items II(3B1a) through II(4B13). In Series III and IV, there are approximately 500-600 photographs and lantern slides from these communities. Series V contains approximately 12 maps pertaining to Speck's research into hunting territories and place names. In Subcollection II, Series I, see correspondence from Beston, Cooper, Gusinde, Myers, Sapir, and especially the voluminous correspondence with Richard White, a trader in Labrador who provided Speck with extensive information on the Naskapi peoples of the region for decades. In Series II, there are numerous works by Speck, including draft versions of "Naskapi, the Savage Hunters of the Labrador Peninsula." Finally, in Series IV, there is a brief silent film consisting of footage taken of various Innu peoples, including Joseph Kurtness, doing various activities, such as skinning and preparing hides, and singing.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Innu | Naskapi
Alternate forms: Montagnais
Language(s): English | French | Naskapi | Innu-aimun
Date: circa 1690-1774
Type:Text
Extent: 3 items
Description: Part of a collection comprised of religious and linguistic materials in various Native American languages. Many were written by Jesuit missionaries of New France. These particular items include a copy of a Montagnais dictionary attributed to Father Bonaventura Faber (or Favre) circa 1690; Montagnais prayers attributed to Father Pierre-Michel (or Petro) Laure, containing also a fragment of a letter dated 1724 noting "this is the third year that I live with the Tad8ssaciens," and denouncing the honesty and truthfulness of the Indians; and a register of baptisms, marriages, and deaths at La Mission du Domain du Roy from 1759 to 1774. Native peoples mentioned in the latter include Chicoutimi, Tadussaks, Mille Vaches, and Montagnais. Originals in the Archives de l'Archiveche de Quebec, Bibliotheque de l'Archeveche de Quebec, and Universite Laval, Seminaire de Quebec.
Collection: Selected materials, 1676-1930, on Indian linguistics (Mss.Film.453)

Navajo | Yuchi | Cherokee | Creek | Choctaw | Penobscot | Innu | Naskapi | Maliseet | Tunica | Chitimacha | Catawba | Inuit | Tsimshian | Seneca | Cayuga | Haudenosaunee | Cheyenne | Maya | Pueblo | Nanticoke | Catawba | Mi'kmaq | Quechua | Dakota | Chinook | Kwakwaka'wakw | Klamath | Pamunkey | Chickahominy | Rap
Alternate forms: Montagnais-Naskapi, Eskimo, Iroquois, Malecite, Micmac, Sioux, Kwakiutl
Language(s): English | German
Date: 1904-1950
Type:Text
Extent: 46 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's research and other professional activities. Items include Speck's notes taken during graduate work at Columbia University under Franz Boas, and utilized for his own anthropology courses at the University of Pennsylvania; Speck's miscellaneous notes comprising circa 500 bibliographic cards and reading notes sorted out by tribe and/or language, dealing with tribes and countries in which Speck did no field work [other entries of this type are to be found among the various groups of materials in the Speck collection, according to tribe]; correspondence concerning exhibits and specimens for the Chicago World's Fair and for the Exposition of Indian Tribal Arts in New York City; two letters from Boas regarding the work of the Committee on Research in Native American Languages; correspondence regarding topics such as the double-curve motif, family hunting areas, indigenous foods and cooking methods, wampum, silverwork, birch-bark technique, baskets, Speck's research and publications, the research and publications of others, obtaining indigenous material cultural specimens for Speck, purchases of indigenous material culture specimens (baskets, masks, etc.) from Speck, Speck's identification of items in the Pitt Rivers Museum at Oxford University, Speck's bibliography, and Speck's obituary; letters requesting copies of Speck's publications, or acknowledging the transmission of publications between Speck and others; copies and/or drafts of several of Speck's presentations and publications, including "Lectures on Primitive Religion," "Land Ownership Among Hunting Peoples in Primitive America and the World's Marginal Areas," "Review of Lowie's Introduction to Cultural Anthropology," and "The Double-Curve Motive in Northeastern Algonquian Art"; a bibliography of Speck's publications through 1942; rough drafts of miscellaneous papers, 1928-1948; Speck's notes on topics such as crane posture; Birket-Smith's 1946 "Plan for Circumpolar Research"; ten distribution maps for circumpolar culture traits, colored in with crayon to show distribution of traits including divination and miracle shamanism, sweat bath, turtle Atlas myth and world-tree concept, bone divination, bear veneration, curative power of mystic words and formulae, dog-ancestor myth, dog as soul leader, curvilinear patterns, and confession to cure taboo violation; and a prepublication manuscript of Hallowell's "The nature and function of property as a human institution" with additions and corrections.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Innu | Naskapi
Alternate forms: Montagnais, Montagnais-Naskapi
Language(s): English | Innu-aimun | Naskapi
Date: 1910s-1940s
Extent: 1.5 linear feet; 500+ photographs; 10+ maps; 1 film
Description: The Innu and Naskapi materials in the Frank Speck Papers are extensive and found to some degree in most sectionsn of the finding aid. The majority of these materials are identified by Speck as "Montagnais-Naskapi," though they include materials relating to Innu peoples from throughout Québec and Labrador, particularly the communities in the area of Lac St-Jean (Mashteuiatsh; usually given as "Lake St. John" by Speck), St-Augustin (usually "St. Augustine" in Speck); and Naskapi communities in northern and central Labrador. The main body of field work manuscript material is found in Subcollection I, Series II, especially items II(3B1a) through II(4B13). In Series III and IV, there are approximately 500-600 photographs and lantern slides from these communities. Series V contains approximately 12 maps pertaining to Speck's research into hunting territories and place names. In Subcollection II, Series I, see correspondence from Beston, Cooper, Gusinde, Myers, Sapir, and especially the voluminous correspondence with Richard White, a trader in Labrador who provided Speck with extensive information on the Naskapi peoples of the region for decades. In Series II, there are numerous works by Speck, including draft versions of "Naskapi, the Savage Hunters of the Labrador Peninsula." Finally, in Series IV, there is a brief silent film consisting of footage taken of various Innu peoples, including Joseph Kurtness, doing various activities, such as skinning and preparing hides, and singing.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)