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Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois
Date: 1781-1819 and undated
Contributor: Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823 | Green, Daniel (Mohawk) | Killbuck, John (William Henry) | Beaver, Mr. | Zeisberger, David, 1721-1808 | Miller, Samuel | Hopocan, approximately 1725-1794 (Captain Pipe)
Subject: Government relations | Linguistics | Missions | Social life and customs | Pennsylvania--History | Moravians
Extent: 16 items
Description: These items includes notes, letters, and essays on the history, manners, and languages of Native Americans, particularly the Delawares, sent by Heckewelder to the Committee and to members of the American Philosophical Society. Contains answers to queries, historical material (such as the arrival of Europeans; relations between the Delawares and Six Nations), Indian speeches, replies to letters of Peter S. Du Ponceau, references to Swedish-Lenape translations, Indian writing, translations of English into Indian languages. Mentions Delaware informants, both named and unnamed.
Collection: Communications to the Historical and Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society, 1816-1821 (Mss.970.1.H35c)
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois
Date: circa 1837
Contributor: Roux de Rochelle, 1762-1849
Subject: Pennsylvania--History | New York (State)--History | Warfare | Hunting | Clothing and dress | Wampum | Petroglyphs | Funeral rites and ceremonies | Diplomacy | Food | Rites and ceremonies | Social life and customs
Extent: 2 volumes
Description: These two bound volumes contain a published first edition, 1837, of Jean Baptiste Gaspard Roux de Rochelle's Etats-Unis D'Amerique (History of the United States of America), a Frenchman's take on American history and culture, and a companion volume of original sketches used for the 96 engraved plates. Many of the images--of American scenes and history--in the second volume appear to be based on the work of de Bry and other artists. Some are in color. There are 27 original drawings of Native Americans and 27 steel engravings of the same. They depict indigenous people, primarily from the, in native attire hunting, fishing, playing, mourning, warring, eating, cooking, and celebrating. Some illustrations accompanying the early text are based on Theodore De Bry's engravings of John White's watercolor drawings of Roanoke in 1585. The later historical text is accompanied by illustrations of Oneidas, Mohawks, and Delawares conferring or warring with Europeans. There are also sketches of petroglyphs, pottery, wampum, and headgear. Illustrators and engravers include Vernier, Branche, and Milbert. Some images have been digitized.
Collection: Etats-Unis d'amerique (Mss.917.3.R76)
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Date: circa 1668-1990, bulk circa 1936-1974
Contributor: Wallace, Anthony F. C., 1923-2015 | Fenton, William N., (William Nelson), 1908-2005 | Wallace, Paul A. W. | Deardorff, Merle H., 1890-1971 | Smith, Mina Brayley | Akweks, Aren | Ka-Hon-Hes | Gansworth, Nellie | Cornplanter, Jesse J.
Subject: Religion | Social life and customs | Rites and ceremonies | Land tenure | Land claims | United States. Indian Claims Commission | Anthropology | Pennsylvania--History | New York (State)--History | Ethnography | Personality | Psychology | Mythology | Clothing and dress | Government relations
Genre: Drafts | Essays | Notes | Correspondence | Field notes | Photographs | Legal documents | Memoranda | Maps
Description: The Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers are a vast collection of materials relating to Wallace's work at the intersection of anthropology, psychology, and history, among other interests. Haudenosaunee materials include items relating to Wallace's particular interests in the Tuscarora and the Seneca, and can be difficult to disentangle from items organized by subject, such as personality, religion, and cultural revitalization. Researchers should therefore also see the Wallace Papers entries for the Tuscarora and Seneca, and consult the finding aid for a detailed discussion of Wallace's career and for an itemized list of the collection's contents. Materials explicitly linked to the Haudenosaunee can be found throughout Series I. Correspondence, especially in the correspondence with William N. Fenton, Merle H. Deardorff, Francis Jennings, Mina Brayley Smith, and Wallace's father, historian Paul A. W. Wallace. Other relevant correspondence files include those for Aren Akweks (Ray Fadden), the American Philosophical Society, Michael Ames, Edmund Snow Carpenter, Dwight Lewis, Chamberlain, Malcolm Collier, Charles Congdon, Jesse Cornplanter, Robert T. Coulter, Myrtle Crouse, Norma Cuthbert, Hazel Dean-John, Vine Deloria, Michael K. Foster, John F. Freeman, Joseph Chamberlain Furnas, Bob Gabor, Charles Garrad, C. Marshall Gorman, Randy Gorske, Barbara Graymont, Jeannette Henry, N. Perry Jemison, Francis Jennings, Randy Alan John, Gertrude Kurath, Weston La Barre, David Landry, Gardiner Lindzey, Floyd G. Lounsbury, Franklin O. Loveland, Charles Lucy, Nancy Lurie, Benjamin Malzberg, Henry Manley, Jane Ann McGettrick, Ernest Miller, Stephen Murray, Oscar Nephew, New York State Library, Niagara County Historical Society, Arthur Caswell Parker, Arthur Piepkorn, Richard Pilant, Susan Postal, V. R. Potmis, Frederic Pryor, Martha Randle, Paul G. Reilly, Egon Renner, Alex and Catherine H. Ricciardelli, Cara Richards, Sally M. Rogow, Anne Marie Shimony, John Sikes, Florence Smith, Mrs. Douglas Snook, Patricia Snyder-Freeman, Frank Speck, George Dearborn Spindler, William Sturtevant, Elizabeth Tooker, Eula Tottingham, Allen W. Trelease, University of Pennsylvania Press, Shirley Vanatta, A. Jeanne Weissinger, C. A. Weslager, and Susan Williams. There is also a great deal on Haudenosaunee peoples in Series II. Research Notes and Drafts, particularly relating to Wallace's monographs on the Tuscarora and Seneca. Subseries A. Indian Research primarily contains Haudenosaunee-related materials, including notes and field notes from research trips to Iroquoia and to archives, copies of and extracts from primary and secondary sources, notes on what Wallace called his "Iroquois Research Project," field notes and materials compiled by Paul A. W. Wallace, etc. There is also some Haudenosaunee material in Subseries B. Revitalization and Culture, mostly in form of secondary sources, including "History of the St. Regis Reservation and several Iroquois pamphlets and drawings" by Mohawk Aren Akweks (aka). Series III. Notecards contains index cards with notes on primary and secondary sources on a range of topics, including Wallace's research interests in revitalization, culture and personality, and his work on Indian land claims, all of which touch on the Haudenosaunee. Several drafts of Wallace's work on the Haudenosaunee and other indigenous peoples can be found in Series IV. Works by Wallace A. Professional, along with fictional works in B. Creative Writing and C. Juvenilia of the same series. Series VI. Consulting and Committee Work A. American Anthropological Association contains two folders labeled "Iroquois Wampum," which contain materials relating to Onondaga demands for the return of wampum belts held by the New York State Museum. Wallace publicly supported the Haudenosaunee, in direct opposition to many scholars, including his friend William Fenton, who argued that the NYSM had saved and maintained the belts and should continue in that role. Correspondence, drafts of Wallace's statement, and other items reveal many factors at play: Vine Deloria, Jr.'s involvement; Haudenosaunee youth involved in the red power movement; inter-tribal divisions about the fate of the belts; scholarly disagreement about how best to serve both Native and non-Native members of the public; ideas about the roles of museums in preserving and protecting cultural materials; anxieties about the implications of Wallace's stance for ethnological museum collections in general; the legal dimensions of deaccessioning bequests; and more. [See Wallace's correspondence with Fenton and others in Series I. Correspondence for more on this issue.] Subseries C. Other Committees of the same series includes files on the Iroquois Conference 1946-1961. Series IX. Indian Claims contains over 50 folders of research materials, dockets, trial memoranda, etc., relating to Wallace's work as an expert witness for Haudenosaunee land claims. Series XI. Maps also contains materials pertaining to Haudenosaunee land claims, as well as to Wallace's personal research. Finally, Series XII. Graphics includes watercolor paintings by Ray Fadden's (Mohawk, aka Aren Akweks) son John (Mohawk, aka Ka-Hon-Hes), original drawings by Seneca Jesse Cornplanter and Tuscarora Nellie Gansworth, and photographs associated with Paul A.W. Wallace's fieldwork among the Indians of Pennsylvania, New York State, and Ontario as well as Anthony F.C. Wallace's research (1947-1985) on American Indians including several photographs of Tuscaroras, Senecas, a cradleboard, and pictographs. Additional material may be found in other places in the collections.
Collection: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64a)
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Date: 1881; 1895; 1909; 1932
Contributor: Cuoq, J. A. (Jean André), 1821-1898 | Fenton, William N., (William Nelson), 1908-2005 | Fogelson, Raymond D. | Hale, Horatio, 1817-1896 | Harrington, M. R. (Mark Raymond), 1882-1971 | Hewitt, J. N. B. (John Napoleon Brinton), 1859-1937 | Siebert, Frank T. (Frank Thomas), 1912-1998 | Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950
Subject: History | Treaties | Warfare | Linguistics | Rites and ceremonies | Social life and customs | Religion | Cosmology | Ethnography | Population
Extent: 178 pages
Description: The Haudenosaunee materials in the Frank Siebert Papers are confined mostly to Series III, subsection C, "Texts." On interest are early historical accounts from the 17th century; accounts by Iroquois informants; and a relatively small amount of linguistic materials.
Collection: Frank Siebert Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.97)
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Contributor: Myers, Merlin G.
Subject: Anthropology | Ethnography | Linguistics | Architecture | Kinship | Marriage customs and rites | Economic conditions | Demographics | Gender | Social life and customs | Rites and ceremonies
Extent: 315 pages
Description: This dissertation by anthropologist Merlin G. Myers was submitted to Cambridge University in 1962. The author focuses on the economic features and composition of household groups, political and ritual aspects of matrilineal descent, kinship and marriage, and the effects of these on the household group. He pays particular attention to variables relating to age, gender, and relations between generations. The study is based on Myers' field research in 1956-1958, during which he (accompanied by his wife, whose associations with Longhouse women led to some valuable insights) worked in both English and halting Cayuga. Among other sources, Myers had access to unpublished field notes of William N. Fenton, who also introduced Myers to members of the Six Nations Reserve. This item was a gift of William N. Fenton. Published by the University of Nebraska Press in 2006.
Collection: Household structure among the Longhouse Iroquois of the Six Nations Reserve (Mss.970.3.M99)
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Lenape
Subject: New York (State)--History | Religion | Social life and customs | Hunting | Warfare | Diplomacy | Material culture | Education | Government relations | Medicine | Politics and government | Rites and ceremonies | Wampum
Extent: 16 panels (oversized)
Description: Designer and author Ray Fadden (Aren Akweks, Tehanetorens) was a member of the Wolf Clan of the Mohawk community of Akwesasne and founder of the Six Nations Indian Museum of Onchiota, New York. As an educator, Fadden created “educational charts” to convey elements of Haudenosaunee history and culture to audiences. Early on, he enlisted the help of his son, John Fadden. Later, others were brought in to create other charts. This particular chart or poster is signed by Sagotaoala (Bob Gabor). It is comprised of four parts (photocopies of the original). Seen as a whole, the central feature of the poster is a map of Haudenosaunee territory in present-day New York State, showing the relative locations of the six nations of the Iroquois League (Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk, and Tuscarora) and overlaid with drawings relating to Haudenosaunee history and culture. This central image is ringed with many more sketches, and around the edges the chart is bordered wtih different wampum belt designs. The sketches range from small and simple to fairly large and elaborate, and feature important people, events, places, material culture items, etc. from Haudenosaunee history and culture. This includes drawings of people like Hiawatha, Joseph Brant, Mary Jemison, etc.; material culture items like a water drum, body armor, pottery, etc.; scenes from daily life such as hunting, playing lacrosse, and a medicine man harvesting tobacco, etc.; more specific events like councils, warfare, a Dutch massacre of Delaware neighbors, and the arrival of the Tuscarora; and more recent happenings like Akwesasne Club Members on an outing and the role of Indian steel-workers in the construction of the "Rainbow Bridge" acress the Niagara River. Along with the 4-panel complete educational poster, there are 2 panels with miscellanous drawings along the edges, less polished and less specific than in the completed version, and 2 panels that together comprise a map of New York State and environs, and have the same kinds of drawings as the other two posters (albeit less polished than the 4-panel poster but more polished than in the other 2-panel item). Included in this folder are negatives of each of the 8 panels described.
Collection: Iroquois past and present in the state of New York, presented by the Akwesasne Mohawk counselor organization (Mss.970.3.F12i)
Culture: Cayuga | Cherokee | Haudenosaunee | Mohawk | Nanticoke | Oneida | Onondaga | Seneca | Tuscarora | Wyandot
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Wendat, Huron
Subject: Folklore | Linguistics | New York (State)--History | Pennsylvania--History | Ontario--History | Québec (Province)--History | Social life and customs
Extent: 1380 pages
Description: This manuscript is an alphabetical list of about 6200 Iroquoian names, collected over 5 decades by Charles Cooke (Thawennensere), a Mohawk scholar from Wahta. Each entry includes the name in its Mohawk rendering, with phonetic spelling, gender, tribe, location, date, and clan. The name is then analyzed by radicals, with historical information about its bearer (where relevant). Cross reference to variants and from English names of Indians. Preface by Cooke, edited by C. Marius Barbeau, classifies names and gives numbers and sex. This item has been fully digitized and can be viewed online. See also an accompanying audio collection (Mss.Rec.10), listed separately in this guide, in which Cooke reads the majority of the names.
Collection: Iroquois personal names (Mss.497.3.C772)
Culture: Lenape | Haudenosaunee | Shawnee | Nanticoke | Mohawk | Seneca | Onondaga | Meskwaki | Mahican | Wyandot | Ojibwe | Miami | Kickapoo
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois, Fox, Ojibwa
Contributor: Post, Christian Frederick, 1710?-1785 | Hays, John, 1729 or 1730-1796 | Teedyuscung, Delaware chief, 1700-1763
Subject: Diplomacy | Warfare | Politics and government | Government relations | United States--History--French and Indian War, 1754-1763 | Pennsylvania--History | Ohio--History | Religion | Moravians | Indian captivities | Rites and ceremonies | Social life and customs
Extent: 1 reel
Description: Christian Frederick Post was a Moravian missionary and observer of Native peoples and cultures; he was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1768. This journal of Post's, who was in the company of fellow colonist John Hays and Delaware leader Teedyuscung (and also mentions Delawares Isaac Still and Moses Tattamy), relates to Post's mission as a representative of the Governor and Council of Pennsylvania to the Ohio Valley Indians and the conference held near the Ohio River in 1760. Copy in clerk's hand. Concerning message carried to Mingoes (or Mingos, who were Haudenosaunee, aka Six Nations Iroquois, in the Ohio Valley) and other Ohio Indians, return of colonists taken captive during the Seven Years' War, and other happenings on the journey. Includes description of conjuring ceremony. This is a microfilm of an original in possession of Mrs. Henry P. Gummere.
Collection: Journal, 1760, of the great council of the different Indian nations (Mss.Film.204)
Culture: Lenape | Nanticoke | Pawnee | Shawnee | Cayuga | Mohawk | Haudenosaunee | Abenaki | Munsee | Tutelo
Alternate forms: Delaware, Iroquois
Contributor: Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950 | Peters, Nicodemus | Moses, Jesse | Springer, Ethel M. (Ethel Maria), 1880- | Witapanóxwe | Wheeler-Voegelin, Erminie, 1903-1988 | Montour, Josiah | Washington, Fred | Washington, Jane | Washington, Joe | Greywacz, Kathryn B. | Lilly, Eli, 1885-1977 | Voegelin, C. F. (Charles Frederick), 1906-1986 | Shoemaker, Henry W., 1880-1958 | Wallace, Paul A. W. | Boas, Franz, 1858-1942 | Anderson, George | Hill, Jasper (Big White Owl)
Subject: Ethnography | Anthropology | Linguistics | Museums | Social life and customs | Rites and ceremonies | Material culture | Peyote | Religion | Art | Folklore | Place names | Botany | Oklahoma--History | Ontario--History
Extent: 57 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's study of Delaware history, language, and culture. Speck's correspondence with Delaware collaborators in Oklahoma relating to Delaware history, ethnographic data, linguistics, museum specimens, and reservation affairs, etc., might be of particular interest; there are also several tales related by Witapanóxwe, or War Eagle, other tales and texts (some with interlineal translation) from Josiah Montour and other unknown contributors, and 11 sketches of Delaware art designs. Other correspondence touches on Speck's efforts to collect specimens (and individuals and institutions interested in acquiring them), his efforts to collect paintings and sketches of ceremonies and designs, his fieldwork and expenses, financial support from the University of Pennsylvania and Indiana Historical Society, Shawnee data on Oklahoma Delawares, the Big House Ceremony, efforts to acquire a Delaware Big House to erect in Harrisburg, Delawares-as-women, etc. There are also at least 82 pages (in three folders) of Speck's field notes of ethnographic and linguistic data, and over 50 pages (in two folders) of Speck's miscellaneous notes (including some correspondence) on topics such as Gladys Tantaquidgeon and Delaware designs, botanical specimens, linguistic materials, museum specimens, the Walam Olum, the Six Nation Delaware reservation, the celestial bear theme, native religion, reviews of Speck's publications, etc. Other notes cover Delaware grammar and vocabulary, Delaware clans and social organization, dualism in Delaware religion, the influence of Christianity on Delaware religion, the provenance of Delaware museum specimens obtained from Delawares in Oklahoma and Canada, biographical information on Joseph Montur and Nicodemus Peters, etc. There are also various drafts, essays, lectures and other writings by Speck on topics such as Delaware religion, ceremonies, peyote rites, designs, population, remnant populations in the east, history, place names, a Delaware bibliography and a notebook of reports to the University of Pennsylvania Research Committee on fieldwork among Oklahoma Delaware, St. Francis Abenaki, Munsee and Six Nations Delaware, Tutelo, Cayuga, 1931-1936.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Contributor: Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950 | Lazore, Margaret C. | Carse, Mary, 1919- | Jones, Louis C. (Louis Clark), 1908-1990 | Akweks, Aren | Cook, Donald (Muzzy) | Cook, Julius
Subject: Anthropology | Ethnography | Social life and customs | Hunting | Politics and government | Folklore | Basketry | Masks | Dance | Government relations | New York (State)--History
Extent: 6 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's study of Mohawk language, history, and culture. Includes miscellaneous Mohawk field notes on topics such as Caughnawaga traps, St. Regis mask data obtained from Julius Cook, dance, addresses, etc., as well as a letter from Ray Fadden congratulating Speck on his Iroquois study (1945); Speck's review of "Listen for a Lonesome Drum" by Carl Cramer; a brief (circa 1945) by St. Regis Mohawks concerning Indian rights against New York and federal government after 1924, along with a letter from Muzzy Cook, Julius Cook, and Ray Fadden (Aren Akweks, Tehanetorens, of the Akwesasne Counselor Organization); a letter from former student Mary Rowell (married name Carse) regarding her summer experiences among the St. Regis Mohawk, including her general impressions of the culture and her concern about the dangers of false traditions being taught; a letter from Margaret Lazore concerning the sale of baskets at the Allentown Fair and mentioning the visit of Mary Rowell (Carse) and Ray Fadden; and two letters from Louis C. Jones returning Speck's manuscript "the Mohawk Folk Tale" and relating to Speck serving on the Handbook Committee of the American Folklore Society.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)