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Oneida | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1926
Type:Text
Extent: 1 reel
Description: Read before the Northampton Historical Society on January 28, 1926, this typescript essay presents the life of a man who was raised by Oneida Indians, missionary and interpreter James Dean (1748-1823) of Westmoreland, New York. It contains a version of the Oneida creation myth. Original in possession of Benjamin D. Meritt, Princeton, N.J.
Collection: A New England pioneer among the Oneida Indians, 1926 (Mss.Film.1101)

Cayuga | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: November 21, 1748
Type:Text
Extent: 1 page
Description: Letter to Richard Peters stating that Shickellamy is going to Bethlehem, apparently as a convert. Weiser expects "nothing but mischief by these people" (meaning the Moravians).
Collection: Selections from the correspondence of the Honourable James Logan, 1699-1750 (Mss.B.L82)

Lenape | Onondaga | Munsee | Haudenosaunee | Arawak | Natchez | Yuchi | Ojibwe | Mahican
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois, Six Nations
Language(s): English | Delaware | Onondaga | Munsee
Date: 1800-1893
Type:Text
Extent: 21 items
Description: Items relating to Delaware materials at the American Philosophical Society. Topics include requests for materials (a loan of a map of the "Indian Walk," or Walking Purchase, 1737; the Society of the United Brethren for Propagating the Gospel Among the Heathens wants the return of documents deposited by the Brethren for Heckewelder as listed in the Transactions of the Historical and Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society 1); requests for information (on David Zeisberger as a missionary to the Indians); of materials (Zeisberger's Delaware grammar; John G. E. Heckewelder's paper on Personal names; Heckewelder's edits in case of a second edition of his Account of the Indian nations (1819)); donated materials (Roth's "Life of Christ" in Delaware, #1176; a French translation of Heckewelder's account done by Chevalier John Du Ponceau; materials from Heckwelder himself; documents relating to the Paxton boys from Samuel Fisher; authentic extracts of official Swedish papers relative to their settlements in America as well as translations of extracts of Acrelius (1759)); Heckewelder's Delaware grammar and work in general; a list of botanical names with equivalents in Delaware, Onondaga, and occasionally Munsee; Matthew S. Henry's work on a dictionary of Place names (#1164) and his comparison of Heckwelder and Rev. Jesse Vogler; and Peter S. du Ponceau's own work on Native languages (mentions Delaware, Arawak, Natchez, Yuchi, Ojibwe, and Mahican) and his work for the APS. Other individuals mentioned include Robert M. Patterson, Zaccheus Collins, Mathew Carey, Daniel G. Brinton, Sir William Johnson, Severin Lorich, Charles Pickering, Samuel S. Haldeman, Rev. der Schweinitz, Usher Parsons, and John Vaughan.
Collection: American Philosophical Society Archives (APS.Archives)

Lenape | Mohawk | Haudenosaunee | Shawnee | Mohican | Nanticoke
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois
Language(s): English | German | Delaware | Unami
Date: 1781-1819 and undated
Type:Text
Extent: 16 items
Description: These items includes notes, letters, and essays on the history, manners, and languages of Native Americans, particularly the Delawares, sent by Heckewelder to the Committee and to members of the American Philosophical Society. Contains answers to queries, historical material (such as the arrival of Europeans; relations between the Delawares and Six Nations), Indian speeches, replies to letters of Peter S. Du Ponceau, references to Swedish-Lenape translations, Indian writing, translations of English into Indian languages. Mentions Delaware informants, both named and unnamed.
Collection: Communications to the Historical and Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society, 1816-1821 (Mss.970.1.H35c)

Lenape | Haudenosaunee | Shawnee | Miami | Wyandot
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois, Six Nations
Language(s): English
Date: 1740-1760
Type:Text
Extent: 15 items
Description: Materials relating to Pennsylvania's relations with Delawares during the Seven Years' War era. Topics include provisions for Native allies; addresses by Native diplomats like Teedyuscung and representatives of Indians in Ohio; Teedyuscung's charges of land fraud and the Penns' rebuttal; a passport for Teedyuscung; Quaker support for Teedyuscung and involvement in Indian affairs; Quakers' address to the Governor and Council of Pennsylvania vindicating themselves from blame for Indian attacks; 1758 plans for a treaty with the Six Nations and Delawares; other councils or meetings with Native individuals or groups; prices in Indian trade; sending out to Indians to bring in scalps; a first-person account, copied from and referring to other manuscripts, regarding trade on Ohio, history of Louisiana, French and Indian relations; Spangenberg's refutal of a charge that Moravian Indians are friendly with the French; instructions to Conrad Weiser for a 1754 trip to Augwick to determine sentiments of Six Nations, Delawares, Shawnees, Miamis, and Wyandots. Individuals mentioned include Iegra, Delaware George, Tanacharison, and Scarroyady.
Collection: Indian and Military Affairs of Pennsylvania, 1737-1775 (Mss.974.8.P19)

Lenape | Shawnee | Ojibwe | Narragansett | Cherokee | Creek | Powhatan | Haudenosaunee | Mohican | Mandan
Alternate forms: Lenape, Chippewa, Ojibwa, Iroquois
Language(s): English | German | Delaware
Date: 1816-1822
Type:Text
Extent: 0.5 linear feet, circa 115 items
Description: Letters from Moravian missionary, historian, and linguist John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder, mostly to Peter Stephen du Ponceau with one to Caspar Wistar. Some of the replies from Du Ponceau are copied in the letter books of the Historical and Literary Committee. Heckewelder most frequently wrote of the publications he was working on or revising, particularly his Account of the Indian nations (1819), Narrative (1820), Heckewelder (1821), a Mohican (Mohegan) vocabulary, remarks on a Swedish-Delaware vocabulary, etc., some of which were to be published or republished by the American Philosophical Society. Many letters thus revolve around the research, writing, and publishing processes, including Heckewelder's responses to du Ponceau's edits and suggestions; his own edits, additions, lists of errors, etc.; his concern that errors by the typesetter could bring criticism on linguistic portions; new information and discoveries, such as the finding of a Maqua (Haudenosaunee) manuscript in the Moravian Archives; negative reviews and criticisms of his work, like an objectionable review in the North American Review (1819), a review in the Westchester Village Record disputing the role of Delaware as women, and William Darby's disagreement about Heckewelder's account of the killing of Native people by Williamson and his men; more positive responses to his work, like an honorary membership in the Massachusetts Peace Society for his Account (1819); translation of his work into German and other languages; and his insistence that the American Philosophical Society imprimatur appear on the title page, because as a Moravian he could not publish anything on his own relating to the Society of the United Brethren. Heckewelder repeatedly touched on Native languages and matters of linguistics: among other things, he referred to the Native vocabularies he himself had collected; a Swedish-Delaware catechism and dispute over "r" or "l" sound; difficulties in hearing Indian languages properly; difficulties in writing Native American languages; comparisons between his own findings and linguistic materials and scholarship published by others (of whom he was often critical); several examples of Delaware or Lenape words, roots, paradigms, gender, usage, etc.; and comparions of Delaware to other Native languages like Ojibwe, Shawnee, Natick, and Narragansett. Heckewelder's letters reveal him to be well-read and immersed in a network of similarly-minded scholars trading information and forwarding books and articles. Specific works by others mentioned include the Steiner article in Columbian Magazine (September 1789); a Pickering-Du Ponceau Dencke's version of St. John's Epistles in Delaware; Zeisberger's Bible translation and Life of Christ; Poulson's paper relating Welsh to Powhatan (which Heckewelder deems incorrect on the basis that Powhatan was Delaware); Pickering's essay on a uniform Orthography and spelling; Eliot's Bible translation; a paper by Zeisberger on Delaware being made men again (#865) and Zeisberger's replies (#341) to 23 queries of Barton (#1636); Loskiel's history (Heckewelder notes general verification in Loskiel for specific incidents and believes that the absence of certain incidents in Loskiel's history is the result of missionary discretion); works by Barton (he criticizes Barton for seeking speedy answers to questions of Indian origins, and for thinking Delaware and Iroquois related); and various publications of the Historical and Literary Committee. Heckewelder also wrote about "Indian affairs" such as the Jefferson-Cresap dispute (over Logan speech and affair); Benton's resolution concerning the Christian Indians and Moravian land; the speech of a Delaware at Detroit, 1781; and Heckewelder's role in the Washington City Society for Civilizing the Indians. Ethnographic topics include Native American names, place names, childbirth, swimming, friendship, treatment of captives, derivation of "papoose," names of trees and rivers, and various anecdotes. Other individuals mentioned include Rev. Schulz, Butrick, Colonel Arent Schyler De Peyster, Captain Pipe, Vater, Hesse, Gambold, John Vaughan, Charles Thomson, Thomas Jefferson, Deborah Norris Logan, Mitchill, Daniel Drake, Abraham Steiner, Noah Webster du Ponceau's brother, etc. Heckewelder's letter to Wistar regarding the Naked Bear traditions was printed (except last paragraph) in the Transactions of the Historical and Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society 1: 363.
Collection: John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder letters, 1816-1822, to Peter Stephen Du Ponceau (Mss.497.3.H35o)

Lenape | Miami | Haudenosaunee | Shawnee | Piscataway | Nanticoke
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois
Language(s): English | French | Delaware | Munsee
Date: October 3, 1738; April 1756; March 10, 1778; January 13, 1788; March 4, 1856
Type:Text
Extent: 10 items
Description: Relavent materials can be found in the finding aid under the specific dates listed. Materials include information relations with the colony of Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania's Indian affairs more generally, particularly Quaker involvement, embassies to Wyoming (PA) and elsewhere, and gifts for Indians; Indian relations with the federal government of the United States; Delaware materials in the Moravian Archives at Bethlehem and elsewhere; review of Du Ponceau's Delaware Grammar in Revue Encyclopedique; Place names; Heckewelder's Account of the Indian nations; Harrison's 1803 treaty with the Delawares and other Indians at Fort Wayne; Indian settlements in Ohio, and the difficulty of Christian Indians; a Delaware spelling book with vocabularies. Other individuals mentioned include Nookamis, "Sandusky Indian," Ettwein, Zeisberger, and Paul A.W. Wallace.
Collection: Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection (Mss.Ms.Coll.200)

Lenape | Onondaga | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1816-1822
Type:Text
Extent: 2 reels
Description: These are eighteen letters that mostly concern Indian linguistics. Topics include Heckewelder's writings on the Indians; question of whether or not any of the Delaware can pronounce the letter "r"; and Zeisberger's Onondaga grammar and dictionary. From originals in possession of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin.
Collection: Peter Stephen Du Ponceau letters, 1816-1822, to John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder (Mss.Film.1162)

Lenape | Miami | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1789; 1794
Type:Text
Extent: 2 items
Description: Two letters of Moravian missionary John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder concerning Native Americans. From originals in the Massachusetts Historical Society. A 4-page 1789 letter to an unknown recipient concerns the danger of surveying Moravian Indian lands on the Muskingum River due to threats from Indians, particularly Miamis, and mentions Zeisberger. A 2-page 1794 letter to Timothy Pickering contains information from David Zeisberger concerning Indian affairs; according to Zeisberger and [Gottlob] Senseman, Native peoples (especially Five Nations) at Thames River desire peace.
Collection: John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder letters and papers, 1789-1796 (Mss.Film.805.2)

Onondaga | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1850-1855
Type:Text
Extent: 32 items
Description: "Letters of Onondaga Indians." Letters from two young Christian Onondaga Indians, Thomas La Fort and Jameson L. Thomas, about their efforts to get an education so they might help their tribe; from Chief David Hill, leader of the Christian Onondagas, asking for financial and political aid when the New York state legislature refused money for a school on the Onondaga reservation, and when the Christian and traditionalist factions sought to divide the reservation between them. Letters are itemized, with brief descriptions, in the guide to the Ebenezer Meriam Correspondence.
Collection: Ebenezer Meriam correspondence (Mss.970.3.On1)