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Innu | Naskapi | Atikamekw | Wabanaki | Lenape | Algonquin | Mashpee | Passamaquoddy | Wampanoag | Mi'kmaq | Penobscot | Maliseet | Muscogee | Menominee
Alternate forms: Menomini, Têtes-de-Boules, Têtes de Boules, Tete de Boule
Language(s): English | Abenaki, Eastern
Date: 1920-1940
Description: The materials from Algonquian speaking cultures is quite extensive, though scattered, in the A. Irving Hallowell Papers. One of the strengths is Hallowell's very fine black and white portraits of indigenous peoples located in Series VI, Subseries F, which includes images of Mashpee, Mohegan, Montagnais, Naskapi, Womponowag, Nipissing, Atikamekw, Series V contains some generalized materials such "Algoquian Cross Cousin Marriage," Speck's studies of northern Algoquian hunting territories, and Algonquin mythology and history. The folders entitled "Eastern Woodlands" in box 26 contain more culturally specific materials such as a Penobscot vocabulary list, Innu and Naswkapi material culture, and Delaware religions and ceremonies, although many of these are quite brief. The correspondence, in Series I, includes a letter from John Swanton discussing bear ceremonialism in Muscogee culture. George Herzog's correspondence includes Penobscot and Maliseet scores of war dance songs. There is also a letter from Jeffrey Zelitch, dated 1969, describing traditional ceremonies on the Lakota Rosebud reservation just before the American Indian Movement begins. George Spindler's lettter to describes a Medicine Lodge ceremony among the Menomini.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)

Lenape | Shawnee | Nanticoke | Wyandot | Mohican | Ojibwe | Wampanoag | Onondaga | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Huron, Ojibwe, Chippewa, Munsee, Iroquois, Six Nations, Lenape
Language(s): English
Date: 1816-1888
Type:Text
Extent: 8 items
Description: Materials relating to Alonguian languages and cultures, as well as to the publication of pieces on those subjects. Topics include an essay submitted by Reynolds on Algonquian metalsmiths; Tooker's request for a copy of Heckewelder's comparative Algonquian vocabularies for his work on Long Island place names; two letters revolving around Horsford's efforts to publish the American Philosophical Society manuscript of Heckewelder's comparative Algonquian vocabulary with his edition of Zeisberger's Onondaga dictionary; Du Ponceau on Native languages described as Huron, Delaware, Minsi, Mohicon, Natick, Chippeway, Shawanoe and Nanticoke; and two items relating to a manuscript found on the coast of Labrador which Du Ponceau presented to the APS in facsimile and which he believed to be Algonquian.
Collection: American Philosophical Society Archives (APS.Archives)

Lenape | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1936-1959
Type:Text
Extent: 9 items
Description: Materials relating to Paul A. W. Wallace's research and writing on topics in Delaware history and culture. Items include drafts, with corrections, of a 1952 paper on the "Delawares-as-Women Problem" read at the Iroquois Conference, Red House; Wallace's undated report on a visit with Chief Joseph Montour (Delaware) at the Six Nations Reserve, Ontario; three copies of a document titled "We are the Six Nations" regarding relations between the Delawares and Haudenosaunee; a draft of Wallace's article "Last King of the Delawares " on Chief Joseph Montour, which discusses relations between the Delawares and Haudenosaunee as well as events in Montour's life; Wallace's correspondence with Montour; Wallace's correspondence with Nicholas B. Wainwright regarding the Delawares-as-women problem; Wallace's correspondence with E. Gordon Alderfer regarding a proposed literary history of Pennsylvania and the desirability of including Indian oral literature, and the validity of Walam Olum; Wallace's correspondence with John C. Ewers regarding the true national identity of the Indian in "Portrait of a Delaware Indian" by Charles B. J. Fevret de St. Memin; and three pages by John Witthoft on the age and origin of Polly Heckewelder's "Indian doll."
Collection: Paul A. W. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64b)

Haudenosaunee | Lenape | Catawba | Cherokee | Houma | Nanticoke | Abenaki | Cayuga | Tutelo | Onondaga | Mohawk | Tuscarora
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Lenape
Language(s): English
Date: 1777-1950, bulk 1914-1950
Type:Text
Extent: 23 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's study of Haudenosaunee history, language, and culture. Includes correspondence with Haudenosaunee consultants like John L. Buck, Seth Newhouse, Josiah Hill, David S. Hill, etc., on topics ranging from the seizure of wampum by the Canadian government, Newhouse's request that Speck secure wampum for him, Newhouse's offer to sell Speck his history manuscript, which he has been working on since 1885 [#1650], Haudenosaunee burial customs, religion, etc.; an essay by Jesse Moses titled "The Long-House man, a Six Nations Indian of Canada speaks his mind," about the relationship of Christianity and the long-house religion; Speck's correspondence with William N. Fenton, principally concerning field work among the Catawba, Cherokee, and Houma but also touching on Fenton's Seneca field work, Speck's various studies of the Haudenosaunee, and the Second Conference on Iroquois Research; correspondence with other anthropologists about various aspects of Haudenosaunee history and culture such as material culture specimens, archaeology, historical sources, agriculture, education, warfare, religion, population statistics, etc.; a draft of Speck's "Reflections on Iroquois religion" and related correspondence; an undated document describing a meeting of Delaware, Nanticoke, and Canadian Iroquois in the presence of Speck and recounting the injustices suffered by Indians in United States and Canada; a copy of a 1777 treaty made by Peter F. Timothy, a Moravian Delaware, in August 1888, and transmitted to Speck by Jesse Moses; and Speck's research notes and other miscellaneous correspondence on topics such as masks, art, museum specimens, hunting territory, chiefships, words, warfare with the Abenaki, the Delaware-as-women theme, academic publications and conferences, etc.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Houma | Creek | Tohono O'odham | Akimel O'odham | Lenape
Alternate forms: Papago, Pima, Munsee
Language(s): English
Date: 1929-1947
Extent: 11 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's study of Houma history and culture. Includes correspondence with Houma consultants such as members of the Billiot family, Ann Celestine, Dorothy Celestine, and Ben Paul about topics including museum specimens (a pirogue, beaded belts, baskets, blow guns, etc.), land questions, and schooling problems; correspondence with government officials and academic colleagues including Willard Beatty, William Zimmerman, Joseph McCaskill, Alice Marriott, and John Reed Swanton, and others regarding Speck's field work, various aspects of his research, and the social and economic conditions of the Houma people; a draft and copy of Speck's "Report...on Houma Indians" prepared for the Bureau of Indian Affairs, concerning the history and condition of the Houma and their educational needs; notes and correspondence regarding Houma medicine and traps; and Houma specimens consisting of six bone and wood points for canoe arrows and a model of canoe with two paddles.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Haudenosaunee | Onondaga | Mohawk | Tuscarora | Oneida | Cayuga | Seneca | Lenape
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Lenape
Language(s): English
Date: 1940
Extent: 16 panels (oversized)
Description: Designer and author Ray Fadden (Aren Akweks, Tehanetorens) was a member of the Wolf Clan of the Mohawk community of Akwesasne and founder of the Six Nations Indian Museum of Onchiota, New York. As an educator, Fadden created “educational charts” to convey elements of Haudenosaunee history and culture to audiences. Early on, he enlisted the help of his son, John Fadden. Later, others were brought in to create other charts. This particular chart or poster is signed by Sagotaoala (Bob Gabor). It is comprised of four parts (photocopies of the original). Seen as a whole, the central feature of the poster is a map of Haudenosaunee territory in present-day New York State, showing the relative locations of the six nations of the Iroquois League (Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk, and Tuscarora) and overlaid with drawings relating to Haudenosaunee history and culture. This central image is ringed with many more sketches, and around the edges the chart is bordered wtih different wampum belt designs. The sketches range from small and simple to fairly large and elaborate, and feature important people, events, places, material culture items, etc. from Haudenosaunee history and culture. This includes drawings of people like Hiawatha, Joseph Brant, Mary Jemison, etc.; material culture items like a water drum, body armor, pottery, etc.; scenes from daily life such as hunting, playing lacrosse, and a medicine man harvesting tobacco, etc.; more specific events like councils, warfare, a Dutch massacre of Delaware neighbors, and the arrival of the Tuscarora; and more recent happenings like Akwesasne Club Members on an outing and the role of Indian steel-workers in the construction of the "Rainbow Bridge" acress the Niagara River. Along with the 4-panel complete educational poster, there are 2 panels with miscellanous drawings along the edges, less polished and less specific than in the completed version, and 2 panels that together comprise a map of New York State and environs, and have the same kinds of drawings as the other two posters (albeit less polished than the 4-panel poster but more polished than in the other 2-panel item). Included in this folder are negatives of each of the 8 panels described.
Collection: Iroquois past and present in the state of New York, presented by the Akwesasne Mohawk counselor organization (Mss.970.3.F12i)

Innu | Cree | Lenape | Seneca | Mohawk | Haudenosaunee | Penobscot | Yurok | Yana | Arapaho | Cheyenne | Paiute | Coahuiltecan | Dene
Alternate forms: Montagnais, Lenape, Athabaskan, Athapascan
Language(s): English
Date: 1911-1934
Type:Text
Extent: 4 folders
Description: Materials relating to linguistics. Includes an undated 4-page list of 34 questions on culturally patterned aspects of language attributed to Hallowell; correspondence with Boas relating to the American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Research in American Native Languages, principally consisting of reports on grants and their progress (1927-1934); and two folders containing 30 letters from Sapir (1911-1924). The Sapir letters cover a range of topics including Northeast material-culture specimens;s of Speck;s of Sapir; linguistic field work among the Montagnais [Innu], Cree, Delaware, Seneca, Mohawk, and Penobscot; relation of Algonquian and Wiyot-Yurok; on Yana (with Ishi); Arapaho-Cheyenne; Sapir's paper on Levirate marriage; Yurok kinship; a scheme to test response of anthropologists to an Indian design; work on his grammar of Paiute; reduction of language stocks to 6 (1920); his work on Subtiaba; relationships in and around Hokan-Coahuiltecan, and some discussion of migrations, seeing Athabaskan as late arrival. Discussion of colleagues: Mechling, Barbeau, Heye, Radin, Dixon, Skinner, Goldenweiser, Gifford, Frachtenberg, Reichard, Goddard, Boas, Hawkes.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Anishinaabe | Odawa | Lenape
Alternate forms: Odawa, Lenape
Language(s): English
Date: 1939
Type:Text
Extent: 1 folder
Description: Miscellaneous data concerning Odawa dances and an informant. Letter of Ene (?), Denver Art Museum, Department of Indian Art, to Speck, December 7, 1939, concerning Delaware specimens. On reverse are Speck's notes on Delaware locations, according to eighteenth-century maps.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Penobscot | Passamaquoddy | Maliseet | Mi'kmaq | Haudenosaunee | Abenaki | Lenape | Mohegan | Mohican | Zuni | Navajo | Tutelo | Wabanaki
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Micmac, Lenape, Mahican, Malecite
Language(s): English | Abenaki, Eastern
Date: 1908-1947
Extent: 27 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's study of Penobscot language, history, and culture, and his preparation of his book Penobscot Man. This includes several folders of Speck's field notes, notes organized around specific topics (including data not used in Speck's published works), copies and drafts of lectures and essays, correspondence, etc. Topics include Penobscot social organization, calendar system, house furnishings, hunting morality, animal lore, religion, art, sayings, alphabet, counting and measuring, canoe-making, face-painting, texts with interlineal translations, and "Bird Lore of the Northern Indians" (a faculty public lecture at the University of Pennsylvania). Additionally, significant correspondence concerns the preparation, expenses, dissemination, and reception of his Penobscot publications. Other topics of correspondence include Ethel Gandy's monograph on Penobscot art; names of chiefs and their clans; "clown" performances outside of the southwest among the Penobscot, Iroquois [Haudenosaunee], Abenaki, and Delaware; place names; the relationship of Penobscot-Mohegan and Mahican; a comparison of Zuni-Navajo and Red Paint; Tutelo. There is a particularly large folder of Speck's miscellaneous Penobscot notes containing both a variety of notes and correspondence from Penobscot consultants as well as non-Native colleagues. These include letters from Roland E. Nelson (Needahbeh, Penobscot) concerning drum for exhibit; letters from Nelson, Franz Boas, John M. Cooper, William B. Goodwin, E. V. McCollum, and J. Dyneley Prince, all concerning Penobscot Man; Clifford P. Wilson concerning moosehair embroidery; Edward Reman concerning Norse influence on Penobscot; Carrie A. Lyford concerning moose-wool controversy and Ann Stimson's report; Ann Stimson, letter of thanks; Henry Noyes Otis concerning genealogy of Indians named Sias on Cape Cod (Speck marked this Penobscot); Princess Pretty Woman (Passamaquoddy) concerning her dress (apparently at the Penn Museum); Dorothy Ranco (Penobscot) concerning Princess Pretty Woman's dress; Roland W. Mann, concerning site of Indian occupancy according to Penobscot tradition; Ryuzo Torii, letter of introduction. Other miscellaneous items include a 5-page transcript of agreements between Indians of Nova Scotia and the English, August 15, 1749; 2 pages, transcript of agreement of July 13, 1727 (letter of transmittal, Lloyd Price to Miss MacDonald, September 24, 1936); Ann K. Stimson, Moose Wool and Climbing Powers of the American Mink; miscellaneous field notes on topics like songs, kinship, totem, medicine, and social units; and 4 pages of Penobscot words and their cultural use.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)