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Lenape
Alternate forms: Lenape
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1825
Type:Text
Extent: 1 reel
Description: This is a forty-eight page report on Delaware culture and language, with selected words and phrases and their meanings, by C. C. Trowbridge in response to a 1823 questionnaire distributed by Lewis Cass. In part a criticism of Heckewelder and DuPonceau. Originals at the University of Michigan.
Collection: Account of some of the traditions, manners and customs of the Lenee Lenauppa Indians: traditions of the Lenee Lenaupee or Delawares: and, language of the Delawares, [ca. 1825] (Mss.Film.883)

Innu | Naskapi | Atikamekw | Wabanaki | Lenape | Algonquin | Mashpee | Passamaquoddy | Wampanoag | Mi'kmaq | Penobscot | Maliseet | Muscogee | Menominee
Alternate forms: Menomini, Têtes-de-Boules, Têtes de Boules, Tete de Boule
Language(s): English | Abenaki, Eastern
Date: 1920-1940
Description: The materials from Algonquian speaking cultures is quite extensive, though scattered, in the A. Irving Hallowell Papers. One of the strengths is Hallowell's very fine black and white portraits of indigenous peoples located in Series VI, Subseries F, which includes images of Mashpee, Mohegan, Montagnais, Naskapi, Womponowag, Nipissing, Atikamekw, Series V contains some generalized materials such "Algoquian Cross Cousin Marriage," Speck's studies of northern Algoquian hunting territories, and Algonquin mythology and history. The folders entitled "Eastern Woodlands" in box 26 contain more culturally specific materials such as a Penobscot vocabulary list, Innu and Naswkapi material culture, and Delaware religions and ceremonies, although many of these are quite brief. The correspondence, in Series I, includes a letter from John Swanton discussing bear ceremonialism in Muscogee culture. George Herzog's correspondence includes Penobscot and Maliseet scores of war dance songs. There is also a letter from Jeffrey Zelitch, dated 1969, describing traditional ceremonies on the Lakota Rosebud reservation just before the American Indian Movement begins. George Spindler's lettter to describes a Medicine Lodge ceremony among the Menomini.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)

Algonquian | Mohawk | Wiyot | Yurok | Lenape | Cree | Ojibwe | Onondaga | Crow | Omaha | Zuni | Yucatec | Quechua | Pawnee
Language(s): English | French | Algonquian
Date: 1948-1977
Type:Text
Description: The Algonquin materials in the Lounsbury Papers include information about indigenous place names, Delaware kinship terminology in Series II. Series III includes work on comparative linguistics, phonology, dialects. The correspondence in Series I contains letters on kinship systems from a diverse array of tribes.
Collection: Floyd G. Lounsbury Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.95)

Apache | Arapaho | Cheyenne | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Cree | Dakota | Lenape | Kiowa | Ojibwe | Pojoaque | Santa Clara | Shawnee | Tohono O'odham | Wichita | Zuni
Alternate forms: Sioux, Papago, Pueblo, Ojibwa
Language(s): English
Date: 1870-1934
Extent: 5 folders
Description: The Eugenics Record Office Records consist of 330.5 linear feet of materials relating to the ERO, founded in 1910 for the study of human heredity and as a repository for genetic data on human traits. The Eugenics Record Office Papers (1670-1964) contain trait schedules, newspaper clippings, manuscript essays, pedigree charts, article abstracts, reprints, magazine articles, bibliographies, photographs, hair samples, postcard pictures, card files, and some correspondence which document the projects of the Eugenics Record Office during the thirty-four years of its operation. Of particular interest might be Folder "A:9770-1-118 Indians from Oklahoma (Work Sent in by Mr. Paul Roofe)" (1926), containing 118 pages of Individual Analysis Cards containing personal and family information about students at the Haskell Institute in Lawrence, Kansas. There is also "Folder A:9770 #1. Indian Photographs, Bureau of American Ethnography" (1870-1912), containing 23 photographs of Native individuals, all men, most with both front and profile shots, and identifying information on the back. Cultures represented include Kiowa, Brule (Dakota), Apache, Delaware, Papago (Tohono O'odham), Arapaho, Wichita, Zuni, Santa Clara (Pueblo), Shawnee, Pojoaque (Pueblo), Cheyenne, and Bannock. Folder "A:9770 #3. American Indians" (1920-1934) contains material about Bolivia Indians, Chippewas (Ojibwe) in Michigan, and from Dr. Margaret W. Koenig of the Nebraska Medical Women's League regarding the family history of Permela Palmer (Chicksaw), who married a Choctaw and then a white man, and who was of particular note because of her supernumerary mammary glands and the similarly abnormal breast development of some of her daughters. Folder "A:974 x 7. Caucasian x Indian" (1920-1925) contains trait charts of mixed families, including charts of a French-Cree and Choctaw family and a French-Cree and Scotch-Cree family sent by Mrs. L. M. William of Battleford, Sask.; a three-page typed essay, "For a Universial Marriage Law," advocating the prohibition of mixed marriages, also attributed to Mrs. William; and a magazine article, intended to be humorous, titled "Indian Wives and White Husbands" by Josiah M. Ward. Folder "A:976 x 70. American Indian - Negro" (1919-1928) contains charts, anecdotal data, notes, etc. regarding the traits of mixed children of Native and African American parents, several examples of which are stamped State Normal School, Montclair, NJ; a letter from the state registrar of Virginia to the Census Bureau concerning the efforts of people trying to gain recogition as Chickahominy, Rappahannock, and other groups despite having been previously been designated as "mullatoes," fear about such people having "broken into the census as Indians," and from there "have gotten across into the white race," and hopes to clarify matters for the 1930 Censuses; and materials (interviews, family trees, forms, notes) from a study directed by A. H. Estabrook and I. E. McDougle of the Sociology Department of Sweet Briar College--with fieldwork (such as interviews) performed by Sweet Briar students--titled "The Isshys, An Indian-Negro-White Family Group Near Amherest, Virginia."
Collection: Eugenics Record Office Records (Mss.Ms.Coll.77)

Cayuga | Tuscarora | Mohawk | Onondaga | Seneca | Haudenosaunee | Lenape | Nanticoke
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English | Cayuga
Date: 1914-1947
Type:Text
Extent: 10 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's study of Cayuga history, language, and culture. This includes Speck's correspondence with indigenous consultants such as Deskaheh and Alexander General (who became known as Deskaheh after the other's death in 1925) on topics such as museum specimens, games, religion, politics, land claims, stories, etc.; correspondence with other anthropologists such as Ernest Dodge about Cayuga war medicine [see also Speck and Dodge (1945)] and William N. Fenton concerning Cayuga winter rituals and suggestions for Speck's Cayuga manuscripts [see also Speck (1945b)]; and a notebook of Cayuga material containing ethnographic data and mentioning consultants John L. Buck, Mrs. John L. Buck, and Jerry Aaron as well as Deskaheh.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Lenape
Alternate forms: Lenni-Lenape, Lenape
Language(s): Delaware | English
Date: 1911
Type:Text
Extent: 1 notebook
Description: The Delaware materials in the ACLS collection are found in the "Algonkian" section of the finding aid among Sapir's "Iroquois, Algonquian and Siouan field notes," which contain Delaware vocabulary and text recorded at Grand River.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Lenape | Shawnee | Haudenosaunee | Odawa | Miami | Illinois
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois, Odawa
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1730-1990, bulk 1947-1956
Type:Text
Extent: 44 folders, 1 box
Description: The Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers are a vast collection of materials relating to Wallace's work at the intersection of anthropology, psychology, and history. Though further research might yield more results, approximately 44 folders and one box of materials directly pertaining to the Delaware (also known as Lenape and Munsee) have been identified. Most of these items pertain to Wallace's personal research interest in the Delaware--beginning during his graduate studies, which led to the publication of "King of the Delawares: Teedyuscung, Delaware chief, 1700-1763" (1949), a psychoanalytic ethnohistory based on his masters thesis--and to his work as an expert witness for Native American land claims in the 1950s. There is one box containing research notecards on primary and secondary sources in Series III. Notecards. There are eight folders of notes, drafts, and other materials on Teedyscung, religion and revitalization, women, land, political organization, and other topics in Series IV. Works by Wallace A. Professional. There are two folders on "The Forbidden Path: Teedyuscung's Embassy to the Western Indians in 1760" by William A. Hunter and John Witthoft in Series V. Works by Others. Series IX. Indian Claims contains dockets, articles, notes, tribal histories, reports, etc., relating to Wallace's work as an expert witness for Delaware land claims (and the related land claims of other groups, such as the "Ohio Tribes," and Iroquois, or Haudenosaunee). There are also two folders of materials on the Lenape by Wallace's student Marshall Joseph Becker in Series II. Research Notes and Drafts B. Revitalization and Culture, as well as a folder of correspondence with Becker in Series I. Correspondence. Other relevant correspondence files include those of the American National Biography, Carl Bridenbaugh, Dwight Lewis Chamberlain, Loren C. Eiseley, the Eleutherian Mills--Hagley Foundation, Herbert Goltz, Jennifer King Hodges, William A. Hunter, Ruthe Blalock Jones, Mrs. Samuel P. Kelly, Harry B. Kelsey, Jean Laub, Franklin O. Loveland, Joan Lowe, Arthur Meyes, Russell Moses, Elizabeth Pilant, Claude E. Schaefer, Frank Speck, John Tabor, University of Pennsylvania Press, C. A. Weslager, and David Wyubeek. Finally, there is a folder of material on the history of the Munsee Recitation Festival (from originals in the Buffalo Historical Society and attributed to a Delaware resident of the Six Nations reserve in Canada, Albert Shequaqknind Anthony) in Series II. Research Notes and Drafts A. Indian Research. Note that there is also considerable Delaware material filed under "Ohio Tribes," particularly in land claims cases, and researchers should view the Ohio entry as well. See the finding aid for a detailed discussion of Wallace's long and varied career, and for an itemized list of the collection's contents.
Collection: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64a)

Abenaki | Cherokee | Lenape | Mohawk | Munsee | Onondaga | Penobscot
Alternate forms: Lenape, Lenni-Lenape
Language(s): English | Delaware | Cree | Munsee | Cherokee | Onondaga
Date: 1930-1941; 1981-1983
Description: The Delaware materials in the Siebert collection can be found in Series IV, V, VII. Most of the materials are from secondary sources. Of interest is geographic diversity of Delaware materials ranging from Oklahoma to the Six Nations' reserve in Ontario to Moraviantown. There are also a number of Munsee recordings in Series XII.
Collection: Frank Siebert Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.97)

Lenape | Shawnee | Ojibwe | Narragansett | Cherokee | Creek | Powhatan | Haudenosaunee | Mohican | Mandan
Alternate forms: Lenape, Chippewa, Ojibwa, Iroquois
Language(s): English | German | Delaware
Date: 1816-1822
Type:Text
Extent: 0.5 linear feet, circa 115 items
Description: Letters from Moravian missionary, historian, and linguist John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder, mostly to Peter Stephen du Ponceau with one to Caspar Wistar. Some of the replies from Du Ponceau are copied in the letter books of the Historical and Literary Committee. Heckewelder most frequently wrote of the publications he was working on or revising, particularly his Account of the Indian nations (1819), Narrative (1820), Heckewelder (1821), a Mohican (Mohegan) vocabulary, remarks on a Swedish-Delaware vocabulary, etc., some of which were to be published or republished by the American Philosophical Society. Many letters thus revolve around the research, writing, and publishing processes, including Heckewelder's responses to du Ponceau's edits and suggestions; his own edits, additions, lists of errors, etc.; his concern that errors by the typesetter could bring criticism on linguistic portions; new information and discoveries, such as the finding of a Maqua (Haudenosaunee) manuscript in the Moravian Archives; negative reviews and criticisms of his work, like an objectionable review in the North American Review (1819), a review in the Westchester Village Record disputing the role of Delaware as women, and William Darby's disagreement about Heckewelder's account of the killing of Native people by Williamson and his men; more positive responses to his work, like an honorary membership in the Massachusetts Peace Society for his Account (1819); translation of his work into German and other languages; and his insistence that the American Philosophical Society imprimatur appear on the title page, because as a Moravian he could not publish anything on his own relating to the Society of the United Brethren. Heckewelder repeatedly touched on Native languages and matters of linguistics: among other things, he referred to the Native vocabularies he himself had collected; a Swedish-Delaware catechism and dispute over "r" or "l" sound; difficulties in hearing Indian languages properly; difficulties in writing Native American languages; comparisons between his own findings and linguistic materials and scholarship published by others (of whom he was often critical); several examples of Delaware or Lenape words, roots, paradigms, gender, usage, etc.; and comparions of Delaware to other Native languages like Ojibwe, Shawnee, Natick, and Narragansett. Heckewelder's letters reveal him to be well-read and immersed in a network of similarly-minded scholars trading information and forwarding books and articles. Specific works by others mentioned include the Steiner article in Columbian Magazine (September 1789); a Pickering-Du Ponceau Dencke's version of St. John's Epistles in Delaware; Zeisberger's Bible translation and Life of Christ; Poulson's paper relating Welsh to Powhatan (which Heckewelder deems incorrect on the basis that Powhatan was Delaware); Pickering's essay on a uniform Orthography and spelling; Eliot's Bible translation; a paper by Zeisberger on Delaware being made men again (#865) and Zeisberger's replies (#341) to 23 queries of Barton (#1636); Loskiel's history (Heckewelder notes general verification in Loskiel for specific incidents and believes that the absence of certain incidents in Loskiel's history is the result of missionary discretion); works by Barton (he criticizes Barton for seeking speedy answers to questions of Indian origins, and for thinking Delaware and Iroquois related); and various publications of the Historical and Literary Committee. Heckewelder also wrote about "Indian affairs" such as the Jefferson-Cresap dispute (over Logan speech and affair); Benton's resolution concerning the Christian Indians and Moravian land; the speech of a Delaware at Detroit, 1781; and Heckewelder's role in the Washington City Society for Civilizing the Indians. Ethnographic topics include Native American names, place names, childbirth, swimming, friendship, treatment of captives, derivation of "papoose," names of trees and rivers, and various anecdotes. Other individuals mentioned include Rev. Schulz, Butrick, Colonel Arent Schyler De Peyster, Captain Pipe, Vater, Hesse, Gambold, John Vaughan, Charles Thomson, Thomas Jefferson, Deborah Norris Logan, Mitchill, Daniel Drake, Abraham Steiner, Noah Webster du Ponceau's brother, etc. Heckewelder's letter to Wistar regarding the Naked Bear traditions was printed (except last paragraph) in the Transactions of the Historical and Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society 1: 363.
Collection: John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder letters, 1816-1822, to Peter Stephen Du Ponceau (Mss.497.3.H35o)

Chickasaw | Choctaw | Catawba | Tutelo | Natchez | Caddo | Lenape | Meskwaki | Tunica | Beothuk | Montauk | Seminole | Cherokee | Yuchi | Creek
Alternate forms: Fox
Language(s): English
Date: 1915-1950
Type:Text
Extent: 18 folders
Description: This entry concerns materials relating to Speck's general study of Native American peoples, languages, and cultures east of the Mississippi, as well as to his activities as a consulted expert in the field. Includes Speck's miscellaneous notes on the southeast; notes on "tribal remnants" in the southeast; notes on shamanism in the northeast; notes on the 1941 symposium Man in Northeastern America; offprints, drafts, and synopses of the work of others, sometimes with Speck's notes, including several that were printed in Frederick Johnson's 1946 volume based on the symposium, Man in Northeastern North America; archaeological reports on southeastern pottery, mound sites, and the Georgia coast; a student's master's thesis on mound-builders; and letters from various correspondents regarding eastern Indian baskets, museum specimens, the sale of Indian art and specimens, the ethnohistory of the southeast, Indian place names, archaeological sites in Pennsylvania and Massachusetts, scapulimancy, copies of Indian treaties from a museum in Nova Scotia, and other topics.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)