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Cayuga | Tuscarora | Mohawk | Onondaga | Seneca | Haudenosaunee | Lenape | Nanticoke
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English | Cayuga
Date: 1914-1947
Type:Text
Extent: 10 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's study of Cayuga history, language, and culture. This includes Speck's correspondence with indigenous consultants such as Deskaheh and Alexander General (who became known as Deskaheh after the other's death in 1925) on topics such as museum specimens, games, religion, politics, land claims, stories, etc.; correspondence with other anthropologists such as Ernest Dodge about Cayuga war medicine [see also Speck and Dodge (1945)] and William N. Fenton concerning Cayuga winter rituals and suggestions for Speck's Cayuga manuscripts [see also Speck (1945b)]; and a notebook of Cayuga material containing ethnographic data and mentioning consultants John L. Buck, Mrs. John L. Buck, and Jerry Aaron as well as Deskaheh.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Cherokee | Lenape | Meskwaki | Nanticoke | Onondaga
Language(s): English | Cherokee | Delaware | Onondaga
Date: 1783-1817
Type:Text
Extent: 107 pages
Description: These letters authored by Benjamin Barton Smith to various correspondents discuss Indian vocabulary words for birds, earthquakes, and animals of their domestic economy. Smith solicits information about Indian beliefs about health, nursing, menstration, animal sacrifice, Indian Bible, origins of Indian tribes, white race, Orthography and spelling, chief's political power, and comparative linguistic analysis between Indian and Asiatic languages.
Collection: Violetta Delafield-Benjamin Smith Barton Collection (Mss.B.B284d)

Lenape | Shawnee | Ojibwe | Narragansett | Cherokee | Creek | Powhatan | Haudenosaunee | Mohican | Mandan
Alternate forms: Lenape, Chippewa, Ojibwa, Iroquois
Language(s): English | German | Delaware
Date: 1816-1822
Type:Text
Extent: 0.5 linear feet, circa 115 items
Description: Letters from Moravian missionary, historian, and linguist John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder, mostly to Peter Stephen du Ponceau with one to Caspar Wistar. Some of the replies from Du Ponceau are copied in the letter books of the Historical and Literary Committee. Heckewelder most frequently wrote of the publications he was working on or revising, particularly his Account of the Indian nations (1819), Narrative (1820), Heckewelder (1821), a Mohican (Mohegan) vocabulary, remarks on a Swedish-Delaware vocabulary, etc., some of which were to be published or republished by the American Philosophical Society. Many letters thus revolve around the research, writing, and publishing processes, including Heckewelder's responses to du Ponceau's edits and suggestions; his own edits, additions, lists of errors, etc.; his concern that errors by the typesetter could bring criticism on linguistic portions; new information and discoveries, such as the finding of a Maqua (Haudenosaunee) manuscript in the Moravian Archives; negative reviews and criticisms of his work, like an objectionable review in the North American Review (1819), a review in the Westchester Village Record disputing the role of Delaware as women, and William Darby's disagreement about Heckewelder's account of the killing of Native people by Williamson and his men; more positive responses to his work, like an honorary membership in the Massachusetts Peace Society for his Account (1819); translation of his work into German and other languages; and his insistence that the American Philosophical Society imprimatur appear on the title page, because as a Moravian he could not publish anything on his own relating to the Society of the United Brethren. Heckewelder repeatedly touched on Native languages and matters of linguistics: among other things, he referred to the Native vocabularies he himself had collected; a Swedish-Delaware catechism and dispute over "r" or "l" sound; difficulties in hearing Indian languages properly; difficulties in writing Native American languages; comparisons between his own findings and linguistic materials and scholarship published by others (of whom he was often critical); several examples of Delaware or Lenape words, roots, paradigms, gender, usage, etc.; and comparions of Delaware to other Native languages like Ojibwe, Shawnee, Natick, and Narragansett. Heckewelder's letters reveal him to be well-read and immersed in a network of similarly-minded scholars trading information and forwarding books and articles. Specific works by others mentioned include the Steiner article in Columbian Magazine (September 1789); a Pickering-Du Ponceau Dencke's version of St. John's Epistles in Delaware; Zeisberger's Bible translation and Life of Christ; Poulson's paper relating Welsh to Powhatan (which Heckewelder deems incorrect on the basis that Powhatan was Delaware); Pickering's essay on a uniform Orthography and spelling; Eliot's Bible translation; a paper by Zeisberger on Delaware being made men again (#865) and Zeisberger's replies (#341) to 23 queries of Barton (#1636); Loskiel's history (Heckewelder notes general verification in Loskiel for specific incidents and believes that the absence of certain incidents in Loskiel's history is the result of missionary discretion); works by Barton (he criticizes Barton for seeking speedy answers to questions of Indian origins, and for thinking Delaware and Iroquois related); and various publications of the Historical and Literary Committee. Heckewelder also wrote about "Indian affairs" such as the Jefferson-Cresap dispute (over Logan speech and affair); Benton's resolution concerning the Christian Indians and Moravian land; the speech of a Delaware at Detroit, 1781; and Heckewelder's role in the Washington City Society for Civilizing the Indians. Ethnographic topics include Native American names, place names, childbirth, swimming, friendship, treatment of captives, derivation of "papoose," names of trees and rivers, and various anecdotes. Other individuals mentioned include Rev. Schulz, Butrick, Colonel Arent Schyler De Peyster, Captain Pipe, Vater, Hesse, Gambold, John Vaughan, Charles Thomson, Thomas Jefferson, Deborah Norris Logan, Mitchill, Daniel Drake, Abraham Steiner, Noah Webster du Ponceau's brother, etc. Heckewelder's letter to Wistar regarding the Naked Bear traditions was printed (except last paragraph) in the Transactions of the Historical and Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society 1: 363.
Collection: John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder letters, 1816-1822, to Peter Stephen Du Ponceau (Mss.497.3.H35o)

Haudenosaunee | Lenape | Catawba | Cherokee | Houma | Nanticoke | Abenaki | Cayuga | Tutelo | Onondaga | Mohawk | Tuscarora
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Lenape
Language(s): English
Date: 1777-1950, bulk 1914-1950
Type:Text
Extent: 23 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's study of Haudenosaunee history, language, and culture. Includes correspondence with Haudenosaunee consultants like John L. Buck, Seth Newhouse, Josiah Hill, David S. Hill, etc., on topics ranging from the seizure of wampum by the Canadian government, Newhouse's request that Speck secure wampum for him, Newhouse's offer to sell Speck his history manuscript, which he has been working on since 1885 [#1650], Haudenosaunee burial customs, religion, etc.; an essay by Jesse Moses titled "The Long-House man, a Six Nations Indian of Canada speaks his mind," about the relationship of Christianity and the long-house religion; Speck's correspondence with William N. Fenton, principally concerning field work among the Catawba, Cherokee, and Houma but also touching on Fenton's Seneca field work, Speck's various studies of the Haudenosaunee, and the Second Conference on Iroquois Research; correspondence with other anthropologists about various aspects of Haudenosaunee history and culture such as material culture specimens, archaeology, historical sources, agriculture, education, warfare, religion, population statistics, etc.; a draft of Speck's "Reflections on Iroquois religion" and related correspondence; an undated document describing a meeting of Delaware, Nanticoke, and Canadian Iroquois in the presence of Speck and recounting the injustices suffered by Indians in United States and Canada; a copy of a 1777 treaty made by Peter F. Timothy, a Moravian Delaware, in August 1888, and transmitted to Speck by Jesse Moses; and Speck's research notes and other miscellaneous correspondence on topics such as masks, art, museum specimens, hunting territory, chiefships, words, warfare with the Abenaki, the Delaware-as-women theme, academic publications and conferences, etc.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Lenape | Wyandot
Alternate forms: Lenape
Language(s): English
Date: 1780-1826
Type:Text
Extent: 8 items
Description: Letters and papers of Moravian missionary John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder concerning Native Americans, particularly Delawares, from originals at the Massachusetts Historical Society and Harvard University. Correspondence includes 3 letters (1780-1781) from Heckewelder to Daniel Brodhead regarding war with Native peoples, Wyandot and Delaware raiding parties, and aid from Killbuck. Two more letters, from Heckewelder to unknown recipients, concern the discontinuation of a survey for Moravian Indian lands on the Muskingum River due to danger from Indians (1789) and, later, claims on the Indian lands on the Muskingum for Moravian Indian mission towns (1796). There is also a report titled "Information respecting British conduct and the Indian war, June 17-23, 1793," containing information on British "meddling" in Indian affairs received from William Henry (Killbuck, Jr.) and others. Finally, there is a letter to the editor of the North American Review, signed R. S. T., about Heckewelder's experience among the Delaware and other Moravian Indians and objecting that Lewis Cass (1826) had overestimated Heckewelder's experience and influence; and a 13-page diary in which Cass defends the experience and influence of Heckewelder as a missionary at Thames River and Gnadenhutten.
Collection: John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder letters and papers, 1789-1796 (Mss.Film.805.2)

Lenape | Muscogee | Mohawk | Onondaga | Ojibwe | Cherokee | Nanticoke | Shawnee | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois, Ojibwa, Chippewa, Creek, Mvskoke, Muskogee
Language(s): English | Muscogee | Delaware | Mohawk | Onondaga
Date: 1735-1900
Type:Text
Extent: 40 reels
Description: This collection contains correspondence, diaries, reports, letters, conference minutes, church registers and catalogs, and other papers documenting the work of Moravian missionaries among the Indians of North America. Includes language materials in Delaware, Creek, Mohawk, and Onondaga; and materials pertaining to the Chippewa, Cherokee, Nanticoke, and Shawnee. Materials cover New York, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Kansas, Georgia, Oklahoma, and Ontario. Originals in the Archives of the Moravian Church, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.
Collection: Moravian mission among the Indians of North America records, 1735-1900 (inclusive), [microform] (Mss.Film.1279)

Penobscot | Passamaquoddy | Maliseet | Mi'kmaq | Haudenosaunee | Abenaki | Lenape | Mohegan | Mohican | Zuni | Navajo | Tutelo | Wabanaki
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Micmac, Lenape, Mahican, Malecite
Language(s): English | Abenaki, Eastern
Date: 1908-1947
Extent: 27 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's study of Penobscot language, history, and culture, and his preparation of his book Penobscot Man. This includes several folders of Speck's field notes, notes organized around specific topics (including data not used in Speck's published works), copies and drafts of lectures and essays, correspondence, etc. Topics include Penobscot social organization, calendar system, house furnishings, hunting morality, animal lore, religion, art, sayings, alphabet, counting and measuring, canoe-making, face-painting, texts with interlineal translations, and "Bird Lore of the Northern Indians" (a faculty public lecture at the University of Pennsylvania). Additionally, significant correspondence concerns the preparation, expenses, dissemination, and reception of his Penobscot publications. Other topics of correspondence include Ethel Gandy's monograph on Penobscot art; names of chiefs and their clans; "clown" performances outside of the southwest among the Penobscot, Iroquois [Haudenosaunee], Abenaki, and Delaware; place names; the relationship of Penobscot-Mohegan and Mahican; a comparison of Zuni-Navajo and Red Paint; Tutelo. There is a particularly large folder of Speck's miscellaneous Penobscot notes containing both a variety of notes and correspondence from Penobscot consultants as well as non-Native colleagues. These include letters from Roland E. Nelson (Needahbeh, Penobscot) concerning drum for exhibit; letters from Nelson, Franz Boas, John M. Cooper, William B. Goodwin, E. V. McCollum, and J. Dyneley Prince, all concerning Penobscot Man; Clifford P. Wilson concerning moosehair embroidery; Edward Reman concerning Norse influence on Penobscot; Carrie A. Lyford concerning moose-wool controversy and Ann Stimson's report; Ann Stimson, letter of thanks; Henry Noyes Otis concerning genealogy of Indians named Sias on Cape Cod (Speck marked this Penobscot); Princess Pretty Woman (Passamaquoddy) concerning her dress (apparently at the Penn Museum); Dorothy Ranco (Penobscot) concerning Princess Pretty Woman's dress; Roland W. Mann, concerning site of Indian occupancy according to Penobscot tradition; Ryuzo Torii, letter of introduction. Other miscellaneous items include a 5-page transcript of agreements between Indians of Nova Scotia and the English, August 15, 1749; 2 pages, transcript of agreement of July 13, 1727 (letter of transmittal, Lloyd Price to Miss MacDonald, September 24, 1936); Ann K. Stimson, Moose Wool and Climbing Powers of the American Mink; miscellaneous field notes on topics like songs, kinship, totem, medicine, and social units; and 4 pages of Penobscot words and their cultural use.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Anishinaabe | Seneca | Haudenosaunee | Lenape | Shawnee | Wyandot | Miami | Ojibwe | Potawatomi | Odawa
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Odawa, Ojibwa, Ojibway
Language(s): English
Date: 1722-1801
Type:Text
Extent: 3 items
Description: Colonel John French and James Logan's 1722 report to the Pennsylvania Provincial Council about the murder of an Indian by traders John and Edmund Cartlidge during a drunken brawl, including depositions and Indians' demands for satisfaction. John Montresor's letter to Colonel James Montresor, regarding his meeting with the Senecas and meetings with other Native peoples in the Great Lakes region in fall of 1764, during Pontiac's War; his position made precarious by General Gage's desire to continue war; French aid to Indians. Pierce's 1801 journal of a visit to Cornplanter Reservation, including an account of Conediu (Handsome Lake) meetings with Indians, September 18-21. Conediu accuses Munsy of witchcraft on Cornplanter's daughter.
Collection: Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection (Mss.Ms.Coll.200)

Tutelo | Lenape | Cayuga | Onondaga
Language(s): English
Date: 1931-1942
Type:Text
Extent: 5 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's interest in Tutelo language, history, and culture. These include three letters from Canadian (Grand River, Ontario) Delaware Samuel John concerning John's Tutelo background and Speck's visit to Canadian Delawares; Speck's field notes from Grand River, Ontario on recordings of Tutelo and Onondaga songs and noting the order of rites [see also Speck (1942)]; Speck's Tutelo field notes from Ohsweken including a notebook of 53 pages of ceremonials, an account of Tutelo ceremonial procedure, a note on the Cayuga burial and redressing ceremony, and letters from indigenous consultants George Nash and Mrs. John Ruck concerning museum specimens; 12 pages of miscellaneous notes and correspondence, including a 1-page list of Tutelo names, 2 pages on Longhouse religious ceremonies, 1 note card and 4 pages of reading notes on adoption rites, two letters from John R. Swanton to Speck citing Byrd's History of the Dividing Line for Sappony-Tutelo references and concerning Tutelo linguistic forms and relationships, a letter from William N. Fenton to Speck concerning Tutelo songs and difficulties of attending Seneca longhouse ceremonies, and a letter from H. W. Dorsey (Smithsonian Institution) transmitting a photo of a Tutelo adoption necklace; and an 11-page draft of an essay on Tutulo ceremonies focusing on the adoption rite. (NOTE: portions of these materials pertaining to Tutelo ceremonies may be restricted due to potential cultural sensitivity.)
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Inuit | Unangan | Tlingit | Muckleshoot | Nez Perce | Creek | Dakota | Lenape | Haudenosaunee | Iowa | Kickapoo | Meskwaki | Miami | Muckleshoot | Otoe | Pawnee | Shawnee | Wyandot | Tuscarora | Seneca | Onondaga | Oneida | Mohawk | Cayuga
Alternate forms: Eskimo, Aleut, Unangas, Sioux, Lenape, Iroquois, Fox, Sac and Fox, Sauk, Huron
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1937-1999
Description: This entry covers materials not otherwise covered by other entries relating to the Anthony Wallace Papers. Researchers are advised to see also the other entries devoted to specific cultural groups, Of particular interest will be Series II. Research Notes and Drafts, particularly Subseries A. Indian Research, which contains correspondence, notes and drafts from Wallace's research among the Seneca and Tuscarora. Some overlapping Native American material is in Subseries B. Revitalization and Culture. Also of particular interest will be Series IX. Indian Claims, which contains Wallace's work (with his research assistant Michal Lowenfels Kane) as an expert witness for several Native American land claims, including those of Creek, Dakota (Sioux), Delaware, Haudenosaunee (Iroquois), Iowa, Kickapoo, Meskwaki (Fox, Sac and Fox, or Sauk and Fox), Miami, Muckleshoot, Oto-Missouri, Pawnee, Shawnee, and Wyandot peoples. Another concentration of materials can be found in Series VII. Eastern Pennsylvania Psychiatric Institute and pertain to Wallace's study of "arctic hysteria" (piblokto) among Greenland Inuit. Subseries B. U.S.-Soviet Commission on Anthropology of Series VI. Consulting and Committee Work also contains items on arctic populations. Materials related to Wallace's research on Native American and Indigenous topics can also be throughout Series I. Correspondence (several of Wallace's correspondents were anthropologists, historians, Native individuals, and other interested parties), Series III. Notecards, Series IV. Works by Wallace, Series V. Works by Others, Series VI. Consulting and Committee Work, Series VIII. University of Pennsylvania (to a lesser extent), Series XI. Maps, and Series XII. Graphics. Relevant correspondence files include those of the American Philosophical Society, James Axtell, Molly Nelson Archambaud (Molly Spotted Elk, Penobscot) Whitfield Bell, Robert F. Berkhofer, Carl Bridenbaugh, Edward C. Carter, Raymond Fogelson, Robert Grumet, Jeannette Henry, Stephen N. Kane, George F. Kearney, David H. Kelley, Nancy Lurie, J. T. S. McCabe, D'Arcy McNickle, Chief C. O. Nelson, Stanley Pargellis, Robert Prall, John E. Roth, Claude E. Schaefer, Donald Smith, John Tabor, Norman Tait, Morton I. Teicher, Ronald Thomas, and Katharine Young. The graphics series is also significant, containing images of pictographs, watercolor paintings by Ray Fadden's (Mohawk, aka Aren Akweks) son John (Mohawk, aka Ka-Hon-Hes), original drawings by Seneca Jesse Cornplanter and Tuscarora Nellie Gansworth, and photographs associated with Paul A.W. Wallace's fieldwork among the Indians of Pennsylvania, New York State, and Ontario as well as Anthony F.C. Wallace's research (1947-1985) on American Indians. Specific items not mentioned elsewhere include a folder on "Muckleshoot Tribe vs. the United States, Docket No. 98" and "Tee-Hit-Ton Indians vs. the United States" [the Tee-Hit-Ton are Tlingit] in Series IX. Indian Claims; a folder containing Frank Speck material on the Nanticoke in Series IV. Works by Wallace A. Professional; and a paper on the Nez Perce in Subseries 5. Student Seminar Papers of Series II. Research Notes and Drafts D. Rockdale.
Collection: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64a)