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Cherokee | Cheyenne | Ojibwe | Choctaw | Dakota | Osage | Pawnee | Ponca | Potawatomi | Meskwaki | Seminole | Ute
Alternate forms: Ojibwa, Ojibway, Sioux, Fox
Language(s): English
Date: 1852-1869
Extent: 0.5 linear feet, 96 photographs
Description: Artist Antonio Zeno Shindler worked at the Smithsonian Institution from after the Civil War until the turn of the 20th century, specializing in ethnographic subjects. He was responsible for printing or taking a large number of photographs of American Indians exhibited there in 1869. The 95 studio portraits in the Shindler Collection were part of a suite of 301 images that comprised the first photographic exhibition at the Smithsonian, and that are documented in the catalogue Photographic Portraits of North American Indians in the Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution (1867). The individuals depicted were members of delegations sent to Washington during the years 1852, 1857-1858, and 1867-1869 from the following nations: Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chippewa (Ojibwe), Choctaw, Dakota Sioux (Brule, Miniconjou, Sans Arc, Santee, Sisseton, Two-Kettle, Yankton), Osage, Pawnee, Ponca, Potawatomi, Sac and Fox, Seminole, and Ute. Shindler printed the earlier photographs (mostly taken by the McClees Gallery) and was photographer for the later delegations. See the finding aid for more information. All of the photographs in this collection have been digitized and are in the APS Digital Library.
Collection: A. Zeno Shindler American Indian Photograph Collection (Mss.970.1.Sh6)

Apache | Arapaho | Cheyenne | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Cree | Dakota | Lenape | Kiowa | Ojibwe | Pojoaque | Santa Clara | Shawnee | Tohono O'odham | Wichita | Zuni
Alternate forms: Sioux, Papago, Pueblo, Ojibwa
Language(s): English
Date: 1870-1934
Extent: 5 folders
Description: The Eugenics Record Office Records consist of 330.5 linear feet of materials relating to the ERO, founded in 1910 for the study of human heredity and as a repository for genetic data on human traits. The Eugenics Record Office Papers (1670-1964) contain trait schedules, newspaper clippings, manuscript essays, pedigree charts, article abstracts, reprints, magazine articles, bibliographies, photographs, hair samples, postcard pictures, card files, and some correspondence which document the projects of the Eugenics Record Office during the thirty-four years of its operation. Of particular interest might be Folder "A:9770-1-118 Indians from Oklahoma (Work Sent in by Mr. Paul Roofe)" (1926), containing 118 pages of Individual Analysis Cards containing personal and family information about students at the Haskell Institute in Lawrence, Kansas. There is also "Folder A:9770 #1. Indian Photographs, Bureau of American Ethnography" (1870-1912), containing 23 photographs of Native individuals, all men, most with both front and profile shots, and identifying information on the back. Cultures represented include Kiowa, Brule (Dakota), Apache, Delaware, Papago (Tohono O'odham), Arapaho, Wichita, Zuni, Santa Clara (Pueblo), Shawnee, Pojoaque (Pueblo), Cheyenne, and Bannock. Folder "A:9770 #3. American Indians" (1920-1934) contains material about Bolivia Indians, Chippewas (Ojibwe) in Michigan, and from Dr. Margaret W. Koenig of the Nebraska Medical Women's League regarding the family history of Permela Palmer (Chicksaw), who married a Choctaw and then a white man, and who was of particular note because of her supernumerary mammary glands and the similarly abnormal breast development of some of her daughters. Folder "A:974 x 7. Caucasian x Indian" (1920-1925) contains trait charts of mixed families, including charts of a French-Cree and Choctaw family and a French-Cree and Scotch-Cree family sent by Mrs. L. M. William of Battleford, Sask.; a three-page typed essay, "For a Universial Marriage Law," advocating the prohibition of mixed marriages, also attributed to Mrs. William; and a magazine article, intended to be humorous, titled "Indian Wives and White Husbands" by Josiah M. Ward. Folder "A:976 x 70. American Indian - Negro" (1919-1928) contains charts, anecdotal data, notes, etc. regarding the traits of mixed children of Native and African American parents, several examples of which are stamped State Normal School, Montclair, NJ; a letter from the state registrar of Virginia to the Census Bureau concerning the efforts of people trying to gain recogition as Chickahominy, Rappahannock, and other groups despite having been previously been designated as "mullatoes," fear about such people having "broken into the census as Indians," and from there "have gotten across into the white race," and hopes to clarify matters for the 1930 Censuses; and materials (interviews, family trees, forms, notes) from a study directed by A. H. Estabrook and I. E. McDougle of the Sociology Department of Sweet Briar College--with fieldwork (such as interviews) performed by Sweet Briar students--titled "The Isshys, An Indian-Negro-White Family Group Near Amherest, Virginia."
Collection: Eugenics Record Office Records (Mss.Ms.Coll.77)

Cheyenne
Language(s): Cheyenne | English
Date: 1948-1949
Type:Text
Extent: 30 notebooks, 344 loose pages
Description: The Cheyenne materials in the ACLS collection consist of a large body of material recorded by Kenneth Croft in 1948-1949. They have three main parts: (1) typed and manuscript data in folders consisting of linguistic data and analysis of noun paradigms, syllable and clusters, modes, instrumentals, affixes, prefixes, and suffixes; (2) 6 notebooks recorded in Lame Deer, Montana, with Northern Cheyenne words lists, phrases, and texts. (3) 24 notebooks recorded in El Reno, Oklahoma, with Southern Cheyenne words lists, phrases, paradigms, and texts. The texts include a wide variety of traditional, historical, and autobiographical stories. See also Croft's accompanying audio collection (Mss.Rec.5), listed separately in this guide.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Cheyenne
Language(s): English | Cheyenne
Date: circa 1949-1976
Type:Text
Extent: 2 folders
Description: Two items relating to the Cheyenne language have been identified in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. They are both located in Subcollection II. They consist of Voegelin's correspondence with Kenneth Croft (regarding Croft's Cheyenne materials, which he deposited at APS and distributed among individuals after he moved on to Nahuatl) in Series I. Correspondence; and a Cheyenne folder containing a 1950 letter from Croft, a brief grammatical sketch, transcriptions of words from tape recordings [possibly from Croft's audio recordings also deposited at the APS and available through the Digital Library], and a 2-page typewritten story in Cheyenne and English ("My Grandfather's Advice") in Series II. Research Notes, Subseries III. Macro-Algonquian.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Cheyenne
Language(s): English | Cheyenne
Date: 1983-1986
Type:Text
Genre: Stories
Description: The Cheyenne materials in the Siebert Papers are limited to linguistic and ethnographic secondary sources located in Series VII.
Collection: Frank Siebert Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.97)

Anishinaabe | Hawaiian | Potawatomi | Paiute | Cheyenne | Dakota | Arapaho | Kiowa
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1942-1968
Description: There are many items relating to Indigenous American languages in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. This entry is intended as a catch-all for materials that cover Indigenous American languages in general and might not show up in narrower searches. Researchers should also view the entries for specific languages and regions. For this more general category, there is relevant material in both Subcollection I and Subcollection II. In Subcollection I, there are 7 folders relating to Voegelin's intended publication "American Indian Language" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries III-B: Works Authored by Voegelin [see also the associated material in Oversized]. Series V. Research Notes, Subseries V-C: Other contains one file on inscribed stones and the Dene syllabary system and another on the Summer Linguistic Institute (in which many Native North American languages are mentioned). There are also two images of a stone inscribed with what were supposed to be Potawatomi petroglyphs in Series VII. Photographs. Also in Series VII are several language maps (i.e., "Indian language groups in the state of Illinois" and "American Indian Languages"), in which Algonquian languages are particularly well-represented. In Subcollection II, there is relevant correspondence with Wallace Chafe (regarding a census of speakers of indigenous languages), Kenneth Croft (regarding the state of American language work in Mexico, the use of mechanical recording equipment, Cheyenne materials, etc.), Samuel H. Elbert (regarding place names in Hawaii, comparison with Oceania and North America), Dell Hymes (regarding Anthropological Lingustics), Vernon E. Jake (regarding proposed language speaker census, particularly how to discern whether children really know the language), Luis S. Kemnitzer (a thank-you note in which Voegelin revealingly acknowledges, "Although I once worked with the Dakota language, I know little of its culture."), Jerome Kirk (a thank you known in which Voegelin asserts, "I've never found any speaker among the twenty American Indian languages I've worked with who got them [directional terms] straight."), and Morris Swadesh (many languages). Also in Subcollection II, there is a file of notes on classification of North American languages in Series II. Research Notes, Subseries XI. General; some "Ungrouped Tales," two folders with stories about Pechiha (Kickapoo?) and Yellow Horse (Arapaho?) attributed to Joe Pierce and Bruno Nettl, respectively, and a folder on sources in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries II. American Indian Tales for Children; and drafts, linguistic notes and maps in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries V. American Indian Languages.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Kiowa | Ponca | Shawnee | Cheyenne | Menominee | Ho-Chunk
Language(s): English
Date: 1885; 1936-1981
Description: The General Linguistics material in the Lounsbury collection can be found in Series II. It includes a broad array works ranging from archeoastronomy to maps to lectures presented by Lounsbury on the history of linguistics. Many of the items are secondary sources.
Collection: Floyd G. Lounsbury Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.95)

Innu | Cree | Lenape | Seneca | Mohawk | Haudenosaunee | Penobscot | Yurok | Yana | Arapaho | Cheyenne | Paiute | Coahuiltecan | Dene
Alternate forms: Montagnais, Lenape, Athabaskan, Athapascan
Language(s): English
Date: 1911-1934
Type:Text
Extent: 4 folders
Description: Materials relating to linguistics. Includes an undated 4-page list of 34 questions on culturally patterned aspects of language attributed to Hallowell; correspondence with Boas relating to the American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Research in American Native Languages, principally consisting of reports on grants and their progress (1927-1934); and two folders containing 30 letters from Sapir (1911-1924). The Sapir letters cover a range of topics including Northeast material-culture specimens;s of Speck;s of Sapir; linguistic field work among the Montagnais [Innu], Cree, Delaware, Seneca, Mohawk, and Penobscot; relation of Algonquian and Wiyot-Yurok; on Yana (with Ishi); Arapaho-Cheyenne; Sapir's paper on Levirate marriage; Yurok kinship; a scheme to test response of anthropologists to an Indian design; work on his grammar of Paiute; reduction of language stocks to 6 (1920); his work on Subtiaba; relationships in and around Hokan-Coahuiltecan, and some discussion of migrations, seeing Athabaskan as late arrival. Discussion of colleagues: Mechling, Barbeau, Heye, Radin, Dixon, Skinner, Goldenweiser, Gifford, Frachtenberg, Reichard, Goddard, Boas, Hawkes.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Navajo | Yuchi | Cherokee | Creek | Choctaw | Penobscot | Innu | Naskapi | Maliseet | Tunica | Chitimacha | Catawba | Inuit | Tsimshian | Seneca | Cayuga | Haudenosaunee | Cheyenne | Maya | Pueblo | Nanticoke | Catawba | Mi'kmaq | Quechua | Dakota | Chinook | Kwakwaka'wakw | Klamath | Pamunkey | Chickahominy | Rappahannock
Alternate forms: Montagnais-Naskapi, Eskimo, Iroquois, Malecite, Micmac, Sioux, Kwakiutl
Language(s): English | German
Date: 1904-1950
Type:Text
Extent: 46 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's research and other professional activities. Items include Speck's notes taken during graduate work at Columbia University under Franz Boas, and utilized for his own anthropology courses at the University of Pennsylvania; Speck's miscellaneous notes comprising circa 500 bibliographic cards and reading notes sorted out by tribe and/or language, dealing with tribes and countries in which Speck did no field work [other entries of this type are to be found among the various groups of materials in the Speck collection, according to tribe]; correspondence concerning exhibits and specimens for the Chicago World's Fair and for the Exposition of Indian Tribal Arts in New York City; two letters from Boas regarding the work of the Committee on Research in Native American Languages; correspondence regarding topics such as the double-curve motif, family hunting areas, indigenous foods and cooking methods, wampum, silverwork, birch-bark technique, baskets, Speck's research and publications, the research and publications of others, obtaining indigenous material cultural specimens for Speck, purchases of indigenous material culture specimens (baskets, masks, etc.) from Speck, Speck's identification of items in the Pitt Rivers Museum at Oxford University, Speck's bibliography, and Speck's obituary; letters requesting copies of Speck's publications, or acknowledging the transmission of publications between Speck and others; copies and/or drafts of several of Speck's presentations and publications, including "Lectures on Primitive Religion," "Land Ownership Among Hunting Peoples in Primitive America and the World's Marginal Areas," "Review of Lowie's Introduction to Cultural Anthropology," and "The Double-Curve Motive in Northeastern Algonquian Art"; a bibliography of Speck's publications through 1942; rough drafts of miscellaneous papers, 1928-1948; Speck's notes on topics such as crane posture; Birket-Smith's 1946 "Plan for Circumpolar Research"; ten distribution maps for circumpolar culture traits, colored in with crayon to show distribution of traits including divination and miracle shamanism, sweat bath, turtle Atlas myth and world-tree concept, bone divination, bear veneration, curative power of mystic words and formulae, dog-ancestor myth, dog as soul leader, curvilinear patterns, and confession to cure taboo violation; and a prepublication manuscript of Hallowell's "The nature and function of property as a human institution" with additions and corrections.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Shawnee | Yuchi | Muscogee | Cherokee | Cheyenne | Kiowa | Ponca
Alternate forms: Creek, Mvskoke, Muskogee
Language(s): English | Shawnee
Date: 1936-1952
Type:Text
Description: The Shawnee materials in the Lounsbury Papers are relatively limited. Of special interest is an untranslated autobiography of Mary Williams in the Shawnee language in Series II.
Collection: Floyd G. Lounsbury Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.95)