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Shawnee | Lenape | Potawatomi | Meskwaki | Menominee | Cree | Ojibwe | Blackfoot | Cheyenne | Ktunaxa | Penobscot | Mi'kmaq
Alternate forms: Lenape, Fox, Ojibwa, Ojibway, Micmac
Date: circa 1930s-1960s
Extent: 25 folders, 1 box
Description: There are many materials relating to Algonquian languages in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. This entry is intended as a catch-all for materials labeled as Algonquian or Macro-Algonquian, or having to do with several Algonquian languages in a general way. Researchers should also view the entries for specific Algonquian languages and culture groups. Algonquian materials are located in both Subcollection I and Subcollection II. In Subcollection I, there is relevant correspondence with Leonard Bloomfield (regarding an inscription on a silver bracelet; Bloomfield's "Menomini Grammar"), Charles Hockett (with questions about Voegelin's article on Delaware and examples from other Algonquian languages), and Morris Swadesh (including a brief Stockbridge vocabulary and a slip of Moravian Delaware) in Series I. Correspondence; 1 box of comparative Algonquian vocabulary and grammar in Series II. and several linguistic maps (i.e., "Algonquian language text with illustrations" and "Linguistic classification of the Southern New England Algonquians"), particularly of the Potawatomi, Delaware, and Shawnee, to accompany the texts of Voegelin's work on Algonquian languages, in Series VII. Photographs. In Subcollection II, there is relevant correspondence from Eric Hamp (to Ives Goddard regarding preparation of Arapaho and Algonquian works) and Frank Speck (to Edward Sapir regarding his work on Mi'kmaq and other northern Algonquian languages and societies) in Series I. Correspondence. There is also an entire subseries devoted to Macro-Algonquian: Subseries III. Macro-Algonquian of Series II. Research Notes. This subseries contains a grammatical sketch of Algonquian by Leonard Bloomfield (135 pages of typescript with handwritten edits and 7 interleaved pages of notes by Voegelin); another "Sketch of Algonquian" by Bloomfield consisting of a notebook (approx. 45 pages) and handwritten notes (approx. 80 pages); 5 folders of notebooks focusing on beginning sounds ("Č and K," "L and M," "N and P," " Š and T," and "Θ and ?"), drawing from Pacific Coast Algonquian ("PCA"), Fox [Meskwaki], Plains Cree, Menominee, and Ojibwe; 3 folders of other comparative Algonquian notebooks organized by general nouns, body parts, kinship terms, numerals, and verbs; miscellaneous Algonquian notes; and specimens of Central Algonquian, including short texts in Fox [Meskwaki], Ojibwe, Menominee, and Plains Cree, with English translations. The rest of the material in the Macro-Algonquian folder is organized according to specific languages: Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Fox (Meskwaki), Kutenai [Ktunaxa culture], Ojibwe, Penobscot, and Shawnee. Finally, there is an article titled "Some Observations on Algonquian Phonology" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries I: General works; an incomplete typed draft of Bloomfield's "Sketch of Algonquian" in Series IV. Works by Others; and a "Linguistic map of Southern New England" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries V: American Indian Languages.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Denesuline
Alternate forms: Chipewyan, Dënesųłiné
Date: circa 1950
Type:Text
Extent: 2 folder
Description: Two items relating to the Denesuline language have been identified in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. One is in Subcollection I, Series V. Research Notes, Subseries V-C: Other, and consists of notes in both English and French on the Dene alphabet and syllabary in a folder labeled "Inscribed Stone and Syllabary Material. The other is in Subcollection II, Series II. Research Notes, Subseries II. Na-Dene, and consists of a folder labeled "Athabascan (Chipewyan)." Its contents primarily concern Denesuline ("Chipewyan,") with briefer mentions of Apachean, Navajo, Hupa, Okanagan, Carrier, Chilcotin, Sekani, Dane-zaa ("Beaver,") and Tsuut'ina ("Sarcee"). It also includes correspondence with Harry Hoijer, 1950.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Anishinaabe | Hawaiian | Potawatomi | Paiute | Cheyenne | Dakota | Arapaho | Kiowa
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1942-1968
Description: There are many items relating to Indigenous American languages in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. This entry is intended as a catch-all for materials that cover Indigenous American languages in general and might not show up in narrower searches. Researchers should also view the entries for specific languages and regions. For this more general category, there is relevant material in both Subcollection I and Subcollection II. In Subcollection I, there are 7 folders relating to Voegelin's intended publication "American Indian Language" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries III-B: Works Authored by Voegelin [see also the associated material in Oversized]. Series V. Research Notes, Subseries V-C: Other contains one file on inscribed stones and the Dene syllabary system and another on the Summer Linguistic Institute (in which many Native North American languages are mentioned). There are also two images of a stone inscribed with what were supposed to be Potawatomi petroglyphs in Series VII. Photographs. Also in Series VII are several language maps (i.e., "Indian language groups in the state of Illinois" and "American Indian Languages"), in which Algonquian languages are particularly well-represented. In Subcollection II, there is relevant correspondence with Wallace Chafe (regarding a census of speakers of indigenous languages), Kenneth Croft (regarding the state of American language work in Mexico, the use of mechanical recording equipment, Cheyenne materials, etc.), Samuel H. Elbert (regarding place names in Hawaii, comparison with Oceania and North America), Dell Hymes (regarding Anthropological Lingustics), Vernon E. Jake (regarding proposed language speaker census, particularly how to discern whether children really know the language), Luis S. Kemnitzer (a thank-you note in which Voegelin revealingly acknowledges, "Although I once worked with the Dakota language, I know little of its culture."), Jerome Kirk (a thank you known in which Voegelin asserts, "I've never found any speaker among the twenty American Indian languages I've worked with who got them [directional terms] straight."), and Morris Swadesh (many languages). Also in Subcollection II, there is a file of notes on classification of North American languages in Series II. Research Notes, Subseries XI. General; some "Ungrouped Tales," two folders with stories about Pechiha (Kickapoo?) and Yellow Horse (Arapaho?) attributed to Joe Pierce and Bruno Nettl, respectively, and a folder on sources in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries II. American Indian Tales for Children; and drafts, linguistic notes and maps in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries V. American Indian Languages.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Inuit | Yupik | Miwok | Maidu | Yokuts
Alternate forms: Eskimo, Unaaliq
Language(s): English | Greenlandic
Date: circa 1950-1973 and undated
Type:Text
Extent: 4 folders
Description: Four items relating to Inuit (Eskimo) languages have been identified in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. They are all in Subcollection II. In Series I. Correspondence, there is correspondence wtih Richard L. Peterson about "Eskimo pictographic writing." In Series II. Research Notes, Subseries I. Eskimo-Aleutian, there are two folders labeled "Eskimo-Aleutian." Folder 1 includes information on Greenlandic, letters from Knut Bergsland (1950-1951), and "Presentation of 'A Grammar of the West Greenland Language' by Schultz-Lorensen," by Eeva Kangasmaa, 1952. Folder 2 includes brief information on Unaaliq [Yupik], Maidu, Miwok, and Yokuts, and the finished typescript of "Sketch of Eskimo." The third folder in the subseries, "Miscellaneous languages," contains Inuit material, among other languages.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Menominee
Language(s): English | Menominee
Date: circa 1930s-1960s
Type:Text
Extent: 10 folders, 3 boxes
Description: The C. F. Voegelin Papers contain vocabulary, grammatical notes, short texts, and other linguistic and ethnographic materials relating to Menominee language and culture. These are located in both Subcollection I and Subcollection II of the Voegelin Papers. Materials in Subcollection I include corespondence with Leonard Bloomfield (regarding inscription on a silver bracelet obtained from Menominees and Bloomfield's "Menomini Grammar") in Series I. Correspondence; and 3 boxes of Menominee vocabulary and 2 folders of document files (mostly regarding kinship terminology) in Series II. Card Files. Materials in Subcollection II include a folder of Menominee notes (possibly given to Voegelin by Leonard Bloomfield) in Series II. Research Notes, Subseries III. Macro-Algonquian. There are also Menominee examples in at least 6 folders ("Č and K," "L and M," "N and P," " Š and T," "Θ and ?" and "Specimens of Central Algonquian") of the many Comparative Algonquian notebooks in the same subseries (i.e., Macro-Algonquian).
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Mi'kmaq
Alternate forms: Micmac
Language(s): English | Mi'kmaq
Date: circa 1915-1936
Type:Text
Extent: 3 folders
Description: Three items relating to Mi'kmaq (formerly Micmac) language and culture has been identified in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. Two are in Subcollection I, Series. I Correspondence. Of greater interest is a file containing two letters (October 1938), two copies of the "Micmac Messenger" (1936), and a slip with the Lord's Prayer represented in both Mi'kmaq and English. These materials were apparently sent by Father Pacifique, a French Capuchin missionary to the Mi'kmaqs of Gaspé and author of "Micmac Grammar." The two letters touch on publication of the "Messenger," sign writing, and the Rand Micmac-English dictionary (which Pacifique pronounced "not so good"). Pacifique also briefly contrasted the "skillful" work of professional linguists with his own "practical" approach to the language. The other item is a brief note, also dated to October 1936, regarding a Mi'kmaq syllabary and other references. The author, signed "Em," also copied the first few lines of the Lords Prayer from a book in the "Clemens Library" [perhaps the Clements Library?], which is perhaps the slip found in the Pacifique folder. Finally, in Subcollection II, Series I. Correspondence, there is a letter from Frank Speck to Edward Sapir in which Speck mentions his manuscript and map of "Nova Scotia Micmac hunting territories," which he plans to send to Sapir.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Anishinaabe | Potawatomi
Alternate forms: Pottawotomi
Language(s): English | Potawatomi
Date: circa 1925-1967
Extent: 6 folders
Description: The C. F. Voegelin Papers contain notes, notebooks, stories, photographs, and other linguistic and ethnographic materials relating to Potawatomi (Pottowatomi) language and culture. These are located in both Subcollection I and Subcollection II of the Voegelin Papers. Materials in Subcollection I include relevant correspondence with Eli Lilly (regarding the discovery of inscribed stones and their possible meaning; see photographs referenced below) in Series I. Correspondence; a folder of Ojibwa [Ojibwe] and Pottowatomi [Potawatomi] comparative vocabularies in Series V. Research Notes, Subseries V-A: Language Notes; a folder of three undated "Pottowatomi" notebooks containing texts (with some English translation) and mentioning consultants Smallman Isaac, William George, and William Soney in Series VI. Notebooks; and two images of stones inscribed with Potawatomi petroglyphs, from Elkhart, Indiana, in Series VII. Photographs. These images have been digitized and are available through the APS's Digital Library. In Subcollection II, there are Potawatomi stories in the Eastern Woodland category in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries II: American Indian Tales for Children.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)