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Shawnee | Lenape | Potawatomi | Meskwaki | Menominee | Cree | Ojibwe | Blackfoot | Cheyenne | Ktunaxa | Penobscot | Mi'kmaq
Alternate forms: Lenape, Fox, Ojibwa, Ojibway, Micmac
Date: circa 1930s-1960s
Extent: 25 folders, 1 box
Description: There are many materials relating to Algonquian languages in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. This entry is intended as a catch-all for materials labeled as Algonquian or Macro-Algonquian, or having to do with several Algonquian languages in a general way. Researchers should also view the entries for specific Algonquian languages and culture groups. Algonquian materials are located in both Subcollection I and Subcollection II. In Subcollection I, there is relevant correspondence with Leonard Bloomfield (regarding an inscription on a silver bracelet; Bloomfield's "Menomini Grammar"), Charles Hockett (with questions about Voegelin's article on Delaware and examples from other Algonquian languages), and Morris Swadesh (including a brief Stockbridge vocabulary and a slip of Moravian Delaware) in Series I. Correspondence; 1 box of comparative Algonquian vocabulary and grammar in Series II. and several linguistic maps (i.e., "Algonquian language text with illustrations" and "Linguistic classification of the Southern New England Algonquians"), particularly of the Potawatomi, Delaware, and Shawnee, to accompany the texts of Voegelin's work on Algonquian languages, in Series VII. Photographs. In Subcollection II, there is relevant correspondence from Eric Hamp (to Ives Goddard regarding preparation of Arapaho and Algonquian works) and Frank Speck (to Edward Sapir regarding his work on Mi'kmaq and other northern Algonquian languages and societies) in Series I. Correspondence. There is also an entire subseries devoted to Macro-Algonquian: Subseries III. Macro-Algonquian of Series II. Research Notes. This subseries contains a grammatical sketch of Algonquian by Leonard Bloomfield (135 pages of typescript with handwritten edits and 7 interleaved pages of notes by Voegelin); another "Sketch of Algonquian" by Bloomfield consisting of a notebook (approx. 45 pages) and handwritten notes (approx. 80 pages); 5 folders of notebooks focusing on beginning sounds ("Č and K," "L and M," "N and P," " Š and T," and "Θ and ?"), drawing from Pacific Coast Algonquian ("PCA"), Fox [Meskwaki], Plains Cree, Menominee, and Ojibwe; 3 folders of other comparative Algonquian notebooks organized by general nouns, body parts, kinship terms, numerals, and verbs; miscellaneous Algonquian notes; and specimens of Central Algonquian, including short texts in Fox [Meskwaki], Ojibwe, Menominee, and Plains Cree, with English translations. The rest of the material in the Macro-Algonquian folder is organized according to specific languages: Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Fox (Meskwaki), Kutenai [Ktunaxa culture], Ojibwe, Penobscot, and Shawnee. Finally, there is an article titled "Some Observations on Algonquian Phonology" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries I: General works; an incomplete typed draft of Bloomfield's "Sketch of Algonquian" in Series IV. Works by Others; and a "Linguistic map of Southern New England" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries V: American Indian Languages.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Ditidaht | Nuu-chah-nulth
Alternate forms: Nitinat
Language(s): Ditidaht | English
Date: 1931-1932, 1935
Type:Text
Extent: 14 notebooks and approximately 6700 slips
Description: The Ditidaht materials in the ACLS collection are found in the "Nitinat" section of the finding aid. The bulk of the material consists of field notebooks recorded by Mary Haas and Morris Swadesh primarily from Chief Peter (Batlisqawa) and his son Jasper of Port Renfrew in 1931. The notebooks include numerous texts of traditional stories, histories, autobiographical stories, and other content including place names, Vocabularies, and grammatical notes. A full table of contents of these notebooks is available. An extensive lexical file of over 6700 terms, derived from these field notebooks, is also found in this collection. See the Ditidaht materials in the Mary Haas papers for addtional notebooks and photographs recorded during this fieldwork.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Anishinaabe | Hawaiian | Potawatomi | Paiute | Cheyenne | Dakota | Arapaho | Kiowa
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1942-1968
Description: There are many items relating to Indigenous American languages in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. This entry is intended as a catch-all for materials that cover Indigenous American languages in general and might not show up in narrower searches. Researchers should also view the entries for specific languages and regions. For this more general category, there is relevant material in both Subcollection I and Subcollection II. In Subcollection I, there are 7 folders relating to Voegelin's intended publication "American Indian Language" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries III-B: Works Authored by Voegelin [see also the associated material in Oversized]. Series V. Research Notes, Subseries V-C: Other contains one file on inscribed stones and the Dene syllabary system and another on the Summer Linguistic Institute (in which many Native North American languages are mentioned). There are also two images of a stone inscribed with what were supposed to be Potawatomi petroglyphs in Series VII. Photographs. Also in Series VII are several language maps (i.e., "Indian language groups in the state of Illinois" and "American Indian Languages"), in which Algonquian languages are particularly well-represented. In Subcollection II, there is relevant correspondence with Wallace Chafe (regarding a census of speakers of indigenous languages), Kenneth Croft (regarding the state of American language work in Mexico, the use of mechanical recording equipment, Cheyenne materials, etc.), Samuel H. Elbert (regarding place names in Hawaii, comparison with Oceania and North America), Dell Hymes (regarding Anthropological Lingustics), Vernon E. Jake (regarding proposed language speaker census, particularly how to discern whether children really know the language), Luis S. Kemnitzer (a thank-you note in which Voegelin revealingly acknowledges, "Although I once worked with the Dakota language, I know little of its culture."), Jerome Kirk (a thank you known in which Voegelin asserts, "I've never found any speaker among the twenty American Indian languages I've worked with who got them [directional terms] straight."), and Morris Swadesh (many languages). Also in Subcollection II, there is a file of notes on classification of North American languages in Series II. Research Notes, Subseries XI. General; some "Ungrouped Tales," two folders with stories about Pechiha (Kickapoo?) and Yellow Horse (Arapaho?) attributed to Joe Pierce and Bruno Nettl, respectively, and a folder on sources in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries II. American Indian Tales for Children; and drafts, linguistic notes and maps in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries V. American Indian Languages.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Lenape
Alternate forms: Delaware, Munsee
Language(s): English | Delaware
Date: circa 1925-1967
Extent: 48 folders, 5 boxes
Description: The C. F. Voegelin Papers contain correspondence, card files, notes, notebooks, texts, translations, drafts, articles, maps, and other linguistic and ethnographic materials relating to Delaware (Lenape) language and culture. Many of these items pertain to Voegelin's "Walam Olum or Red Score: The Migration Legend of the Lenni Lenape or Delaware Indians," published by the Indiana Historical Society in 1954. Such materials are located in primarily in Subcollection I. There is relevant correspondence with Charles Hockett (with questions about Voegelin's article on Delaware and examples from other Algonquian languages), Eli Lilly (regarding various aspects of the Walam Olum, its interpretation and publication), Kenneth E. Pearson (regarding use of Delaware language in Boy Scout ceremonies), John N. Seaman (regarding language consultant Willy Longbone), Frank Siebert (regarding Walam Olum, Munsee materials, language consultants Willy Longbone, Nicodemus Peters, and Nicholas Powless), Morris Swadesh (including a brief Stockbridge vocabulary and a slip of Moravian Delaware), and John Witthoft (regarding Walam Olum) in Series I. Correspondence. Delaware materials also include 5 boxes of card files and 5 folders of document files (primarily vocabulary and linguistic notes, and including 1 box and 1 folder relating to specifically to Munsee and 1 box and 1 folder of Walam Olum vocabulary keyed to the Rafinesque translation) in Series II. 7 folders pertaining to Voegelin's work on the Walam Olum in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries III-A: Works Translated by Voegelin; a folder on Delaware grammar in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries III-B: Works Authored by Voegelin; 3 articles on the Walam Olum by Constantine Rafinesque, Daniel G. Brinton, and Frank Speck in Series IV. Works by Others; 2 folders on Delaware and 1 on Delaware-Munsee (containing Vocabularies, notes, texts, translations, and various typed works by the Group for Delaware at the Linguistic Institute over multiple summers) in Series V. Research Notes, Subseries V-A: Language Notes; 18 folders of unbound texts in Series V. Research Notes, Subseries V-B: Text; Delaware materials in Blackfoot Folder #2 and Ojibwe Folder #24 in Series VI. Notebooks; an ink map of Delaware locations created for Voegelin's published translation of the Walam Olum in Series VII. Photographs; and a folder related to Voegelin's translation of the Walam Olum in the Oversized files.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Mixtec
Date: 1916; 1922; 1940
Type:Text
Extent: 41 pages, 300 cards
Description: The Mixtec materials in the ACLS collection consist mainly of three items in the "Mixtec" section of the finding aid. Radin's "Mixtec and Chinantec lexicon" is based on his own field work (found in the Paul Radin papers, listed separately in this guide) and other published work by Belmar. There is also an analysis of Mixtec tones and those of other neighboring language families by Jaime de Angulo, and a Spanish-Mixtec vocabulary assembled by McQuown and Swadesh. In the “Mexico” section of the finding aid, see “Comparative vocabularies of various Indian languages of Mexico,” which includes Mixtec vocabulary, and McQuown's “Phonemic systems of various Indian languages of Mexico,” which includes Mixtec information. In the “Zapotec” section of the finding aid, see de Angulo's “Estudio gramatical de las lenguas de la familia zapoteca,” which includes Mixtec information and ten ink sketches of maps showing linguistic groups, and de Angulo's “Zapotecan texts,” which includes Mixtec texts. Specific Mixtec languages identified above are based upon languages located in Radin's fieldwork.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Nisenan
Language(s): Nisenan | English
Date: 1955
Type:Text
Description: The Nisenan materials in the Harvey Pitkin Papers consist of Pitkin's "Introduction" to nineteen unpublished word list in Sucollection II, Series 2, Subseries 4-C. The California-Oregon comparative Vocabularies, Richard Smith's Map of Nisenan territory and Morris Swadesh's Glottochronologic test list are located in Subcollection II, Series 2, Subseries 5.
Collection: Harvey Pitkin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.78)

Ahousaht | Cheklesahht | Ehattesaht | Hesquiaht | Hupacasath | Huu-ay-aht | Kyuquot | Mowachaht | Muchalaht | Nuu-chah-nulth | Tla-o-qui-aht | Toquaht | Tseshaht | Uchucklesaht | Ucluelet
Alternate forms: Aht, Clayoquot, Nootka, Nutka, Ohiaht, Opetchesaht, Tahkaht
Language(s): English | Nuu-chah-nulth
Date: 1895-1952 (bulk 1910-1914, 1931-1935)
Extent: 5600+ loose pages, 66,000+ slips, 29 notebooks
Description: The Nuu-chah-nulth materials in the ACLS collection consist of a large body of various materials primarily collected by Franz Boas, Edward Sapir, George Hunt, and Morris Swadesh. The majority of the content pertains to Hupacasath and Tseshaht people in the Alberni Valley area, with the exception of the Hunt materials, which were recorded in the Yuquot area, Mowachaht territory. All of these materials are found in the "Nootka" section of the finding aid, which contains a full, detailed listing. The Boas materials are consist of a lexicon of 1500+ word slips dating from the 1890s. Hunt's "Nootka Tales" consist of large body of traditional stories written in English and later typed up by Sapir with additional notes. Sapir's materials comprise the bulk of this section overall. See especially his extremely voluminous "Miscellaneous Nootka material," the final item in the "Nootka" section, for which a detailed table of contents is available upon request. This set of materials includes 24 field notebooks with extensive stories (some unpublished or untranslated) and ethnographic notes, as well of 80 folders of typed up notes from the notebooks, arranged into categories. It also includes some photographs, censuses of Nuu-chah-nulth "bands" (1920-1921), and 10 folders notes derived by Sapir (and Swadesh?) from "NW Coast Sources and Archives," pertaining to the region more broadly, including information on Coast Salish culture and history. Finally, Swadesh's materials include some additional ethnographic and linguistic field work, as well as extensive bodies of linguistic analysis of materials recorded by Sapir and himself.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Ojibwe
Alternate forms: Chippewa, Ojibwa, Ojibway
Language(s): Chippewa | English
Date: 1938; 1951-1952
Extent: 253 pages, 26 cards, 2 maps
Description: The Ojibwe materials in the ACLS collection consist of two items in the "Ojibwa" section of the finding aid. One is Swadesh's "Chippewa field notes," which includes a story and other language information given by Ted St. Germaine of Lac du Flambeau, who attended the Carlisle Indian School, obtained a law degree at Yale in 1913, played as a tackle in the NFL in 1922, became the first Native American admitted to the bar in Wisconsin, and later served as tribal judge for Lac du Flambeau. This section also includes Joe Pierce's "Shawnee, Kickapoo, Ojibwa, Sauk-and-Fox materials," containing discussion of dialect and language relationships, translations of texts, tests, and degree of linguistic relationships. (The Ojibwe in Pierce's work is that spoken at Mount Pleasant.) In the "Northeast" section of the finding aid, two maps annotated by hand by Speck include linguistic and hunting territories, include that for Ojibwe groups.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Shoshone
Alternate forms: Shoshoni
Language(s): English | Shoshoni
Date: 1950-1954 and undated
Type:Text
Extent: 3 folders
Description: Three items relating to Shoshone language and culture have been identified in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. They are all in Subcollection II, and consist of correspondence with Morris Swadesh (regarding Shoshoni, "Shoshonean" languages, and Uto-Aztecan in general) in Series I. Correspondence; a folder containing a "Shoshone dialect and informant distribution map" in Series II. Research Notes, Subseries IX. Uto-Aztecan, except Hopi; and Wick R. Miller's "Western Shoshoni Speech Communities" in Series IV. Works by Others. Researchers might also be interested in the general Uto-Aztecan entry for the Voegelin Papers.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)