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Blackfoot | Piegan
Language(s): English
Date: 1942, 1950
Type:Text
Extent: 6+ folders
Description: The Blackfoot material in the Fenton papers are found in Series I, including correspondence with Blackfeet Tribal Business Council, Felix Cohen, Paul L. Fickinger, and U.S. Dept. of Interior. See also Lucien M. Hanks in this same section for letter concerning field work among the Siksika (Northern Blackfoot) at Gleichen, Alberta in the 1940s. Series V contains Fenton's field notes from the Blackfeet Reservation in 1950.
Collection: William N. Fenton papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.20)

Cayuga | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1917, 1934-1989
Type:Text
Extent: .5 linear feet
Description: The Cayuga materials in the William Fenton Papers can be found in multiple sections of the finding aid. In Series I, see correspondence with "General, Chief and Mrs. Alex." Additional information may be included in other correspondences. In Series IIb, see especially "A Cayuga League Tradition." Series III includes the manuscripts "Howard Sky, 1900-1971: Cayuga Faith-Keeper, Gentleman, and Interpreter of Iroquois Culture" and "Installing a Cayuga Chief in 1945." Series IV includes Kurath's diary "Report on Cayuga Soursprings Longhouse Midwinter Festival." Series V includes Fenton's notes on "Deskaheh on Cayuga Council." In Series VI, there are photos of "Cayuga nomination strings" In Series VIII-B, see the "Iroquois Social Structure" section and in Series VIII-D see the "Cayuga Social Organization" folder with information on Myron Turkey. Additional Cayuga-related materials may be found in other folders not currently identified as Cayuga.
Collection: William N. Fenton papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.20)

Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1789; 1848; 1917; 1939-1994
Type:Text
Description: The Haudenosaunee materials in the Snyderman Papers include folders labelled by author in Series I from William Fenton, Alexander General, Helen Harris, and Frank Speck, which contain correspondence concerning wampum belts in museum collections and related topics. In Series II there is a deed from 1796, an article about Condolence Ceremonies, and Six Nations Council Minutes from 1848. See also the separate entries in this guide for Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, and Seneca materials in the Snyderman Papers.
Collection: George S. Snyderman Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.51)

Haudenosaunee | Mohawk | Seneca | Tuscarora | Lenape | Oneida
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Lenape
Language(s): English
Date: 1936-1967
Extent: 39 items
Description: Materials relating to Paul A. W. Wallace's interest in Haudenosaunee people, history, and culture. Of particular interest will be Wallace's correspondence and interviews with Haudenosaunee individuals. This includes Wallace's extensive correspondence with Ray Fadden (Tehanetorens, Aren Akweks) on subjects such as publications, the Six Nations, the Akwesasne Mohawks, personal matters, etc., as well as a woodcut by John Fadden (Kahionhes) titled "The persecuted Iroquois"; Ray Fadden's "The Visions of Handsome Lake," an interpretation of Ray Fadden's wampum belt (with two drawings by John Fadden); and Ray Fadden's (Aren Akweks, Tehanetorens) "Iroquois Lesson Book-Stories for good children and bad." Interview materials include a Six Nations Journal, containing notes on interviews with Nick Peters, Chief Joseph Montour, John Napoleon Brinton Hewitt, Isaiah Williams, Chief Hess, Chief William Loft, Alec General, and Jerry Aaron; notes, manuscripts, and interviews with William Dewaseragech Loft relating to the Six Nations and to Wallace's preparation of an entry on Loft for the Dictionary of Canadian Biography; and a transcript of a talk on Haudenosaunee cosmogony and history of relations with white people attributed to the Seneca chief Cornplanter and taken from a document (circa 1822) in the Draper Collection at Princeton University. Other Native correspondents and consultants include Jesse J. Cornplanter regarding the purchase of drawings, along with five of Cornplanter's drawings: "Two Friends," "Mortise," and three untitled; Alexander J. General (Deskaheh) regarding copies of Wallace's White Roots of Peace, the identity of a Mohawk chief, the meaning of some names, and Wallace's trip for the Seventh Annual Pageant at Ohnedagowah; E. T. Montour regarding the Handsome Lake religion; Ethel Brant Montour regarding the Six Nations and the Brant and Montour families; Donald Richmond regarding copying the Seth Newhouse version of Deganawidah sent to the St. Regis Mohawks; Allan Wargon regarding the film "The Longhouse People"; M. J. Jamieson regarding attendance by Wallace at the Condolence to the Dead and the Great Feast for the Dead; Arthur Einhorn (Skaroniate) regarding copies of publications, misinformation about the Iroquois, and plans for building an "Indian village"; Emily General regarding possible genealogical studies of chiefs of the Six Nations, the annual pageant at Ohnedagowah, and vital statistics of Deskaheh (Hi-wyi-iss, Levi General); Bernice Minton Loft Winslow (Dawendine) regarding the Six Nations, the health of her father Chief William Loft (Mohawk), publications, her poetry; Mad Bear regarding a parcel of land in Philadelphia reportedly owned by the and Robert Gabor (Sagotaoala) regarding Gabor's interest in and research on the effects of the adoption complex on the Iroquois Confederacy, his art work for Ray Fadden, circumstances under which the Delawares entered the League, etc. There is also correspondence between Wallace and other non-Native researchers including Charles E. Congdon regarding arrangements for conferences on Iroquoian studies; James T. Edward regarding a biographical sketch of Madam Montour for Notable American Women, 1607-1950; Peter Schuyler Miller regarding the Deganawidah legend; Arthur Caswell Parker regarding the Six Nations and Conrad Weiser; Harvey Chalmers regarding Heckewelder's prejudice against the Six Nations and its effect on Cooper, and prejudice aroused by Cooper's novels; Howard F. Comrie regarding the Iroquois Confederacy as an inspiration for the Constitution and Bill of Rights; Harry C. Durston regarding the date and place of the founding of the Five Nations Confederacy and possible influences of the Six Nations on the United States Constitution; John F. Freeman regarding Ray Fadden and the Akwesasne Mohawk Counsellor Organization and mentioning Seth Newhouse, Bernice Loft, and Edward Ahenakew; Marion E. Gridley regarding The Amerindian: American Indian Review, a picture of Maria Tallchief, and role of the Delawares, Tuscaroras, and Oneidas in the American Revolution; Alfred K. Guthe regarding old photos of Iroquois costumes in the Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences; John Serres regarding the dedication of an Iroquois monument at Scarboro, Ontario and attempts to preserve Native culture; William N. Fenton regarding the Six Nations, different versions of the Deganawidah legend, meanings of Indian names, archaeological work in the area to be flooded by the Kinzua Dam, political history of the Iroquois, Seth Newhouse, publications, research, fieldwork, etc.; an essay by Fenton on published and manuscript sources relating to the history of political institutions and laws of the Six Nations, particularly with regard to ethnological sources, procedural methods to reach the desired goal, and expected results (published in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 93 (1949): pages 233-238); and William A. Ritchie regarding a meeting at the American Philosophical Society, Indian trails in the Delaware Valley, and the probable date of the founding of the Five Nations Confederacy. Finally, there are Wallace's own notes, drafts, essays, etc., including notes for and a draft of "The Iroquois-A Brief Outline of their History" and "Return of Hiawatha," on the reasons for Iroquois ascendancy.
Collection: Paul A. W. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64b)

Klamath
Language(s): English
Date: 1950-1951
Type:Text
Extent: 2 folders
Description: The Klamath materials in the William Fenton papers consist of two items. In Series III, "Report on the Status of Tribal Government in Three Tribal Cultures: Taos, Klamath, and Blackfeet," which only contains information on Klamath in outline form. In Series V, Fenton's "Klamath" research file contains notes from his visit to Oregon researching Klamath political organization.
Collection: William N. Fenton papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.20)

Mohawk | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1635, 1936, 1939, 1957, 1972-1978, 1988, 1998
Extent: 1 linear foot
Description: The Mohawk material in the Fenton papers can be found in multiple sections. In Series I, see correspondence with Akwesasne Mohawk Counselor Organization, Akwesasne Notes, Ray Fadden, Gerald Reid. Other correspondences may potentially contain additional info. In Series IIa, see the subject file for the Akwesasne Mohawk Counselor Organization and "Dutch Journal to Mohawk Country." Series III includes multiple drafts of Fenton's "Mohawk" chapter for the Handbook of North American Indians. Series IV contains a few papers by other on Mohawk language and history. Series VI contains a photo of "Wah-nee-nah. Mohawk Indian Maid, Vocalist." In Series VIII, see subseries A and B, which include genealogical information, field notes from Akwesasne (labelled as "St. Regis"), and miscellaneous historical notes.
Collection: William N. Fenton papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.20)

Oneida | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1776-1780, 1796, 1817-1819, 1824-1825, 1936, 1974-1978, 1987, 1993-1998
Type:Text
Extent: .5 linear feet
Description: The Oneida materials in the Fenton papers include multiple correspondents in Series I, such as Ray Halbritter, Oneida Indian Nation, and Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin. Series IV includes papers on Oneida history by Jack Campisi and Anthony Wonderley. In Series VIII, see Subseries VIII-A for some genealogical data, Subseries VIII-B for "Testimony of Dr. Gregory L. Schaaf, Ethnohistorian for the Oneida Nation for Senate Concurrent Resolution," and Subseries VIII-F for copies of correspondence and documents concerning the Oneida from the late 18th and early 19th century.
Collection: William N. Fenton papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.20)

Onondaga | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English | Onondaga
Date: 1891-1901, 1908, 1936-1949, 1951-1952, 1968-1971, 1986, 1992, 1995
Type:Text
Extent: .5 linear feet
Description: The Onondaga materials in the Fenton papers include multiple correspondents in Series I, such as Onondaga Nation, Howard Skye, and James Skye. In Series III, see ""Concerning the League: a motif analysis of the Gibson-Goldenweiser version of the Deganawidah Epic," "The Funeral of Tadodaho: Onondaga of Today," and "Sir William Johnson Carries the Ritual of Condolence over the Path to Onondaga, 1756." In Series IV, see articles by Bradley, Kurath, and Woodbury. Series VI includes "Onondaga Longhouse Food Spirit Festival." Series VIII-A, Series VIII-B, and Series VIII-F, include several folders of Onondaga-related materials. Some of these materials are restricted due to cultural sensitivity concerns.
Collection: William N. Fenton papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.20)

Seneca | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Tonawanda
Language(s): English | Seneca
Date: 1958-1982
Extent: .5 linear feet
Description: The Seneca materials in the Eilsabeth Tooker papers are found in most sections of the finding aid. The majority of the Seneca material relates to Tonawanda and can be located by searching for that name. In Series I, see correspondence with William Fenton, Corbett Sundown, and others. There may be additional relevant material in other correspondence folders. Series II includes issues of Tonawanda Indian Community News from 1972 to 1973. Series III contains numerous drafts of works by Tooker relating to Tonawanda history and social life. Series V contains 6 folders of Tooker's field notes from Tonawanda from 1958-1972. (Some of this material may be restricted due to cultural sensitivity or privacy concerns.) Also found in Series V are genealogies collected and revised by Tooker in July 1966 and then revised again by Veronica Evaneshko in January 1973. Additional related research notecards are found in Series VII. Series VI contains a cabinet card of Ely S. Parker’s sister, Caroline Parker Mountpleasant, a Seneca Indian of the Wolf Clan.
Collection: Elisabeth Tooker Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.84)

Seneca | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English | Seneca
Date: Bulk 1930s-1990s
Extent: 15+ linear feet
Description: Seneca materials make up the majority of the Fenton papers and can be found throughout all sections of the collection. Series I contains correspondence with numerous people on Seneca matters. Noteworthy Seneca correspondents include Simeon Gibson, Clara Redeye, Sherman Redeye, and other individuals such as those listed above. The largest body of material is in Series V, which includes Fenton's notebooks and other documentation from field work at Allegany, Cattaraugus, Tonawanda, and Grand River, beginning in the 1930s through late in his career. This section also includes extensive card files on "Materia Medica" or ethnobotanical information, and Seneca place names. Series VI consists of over 1000 photographs, the majority of which are from Seneca communities in the 1930s-1950s. Series VIII includes additional field notes and other materials derived mainly from his 1930s fieldwork. Significant portions of these materials may be restricted due to cultural sensitivity, as Fenton's materials frequently pertain to areas of sacred traditional knowledge.
Collection: William N. Fenton papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.20)