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Haudenosaunee | Tuscarora | Seneca | Cayuga | Mohawk | Oneida | Onondaga
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1668-1990, bulk circa 1936-1974
Description: The Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers are a vast collection of materials relating to Wallace's work at the intersection of anthropology, psychology, and history, among other interests. Haudenosaunee materials include items relating to Wallace's particular interests in the Tuscarora and the Seneca, and can be difficult to disentangle from items organized by subject, such as personality, religion, and cultural revitalization. Researchers should therefore also see the Wallace Papers entries for the Tuscarora and Seneca, and consult the finding aid for a detailed discussion of Wallace's career and for an itemized list of the collection's contents. Materials explicitly linked to the Haudenosaunee can be found throughout Series I. Correspondence, especially in the correspondence with William N. Fenton, Merle H. Deardorff, Francis Jennings, Mina Brayley Smith, and Wallace's father, historian Paul A. W. Wallace. Other relevant correspondence files include those for Aren Akweks (Ray Fadden), the American Philosophical Society, Michael Ames, Edmund Snow Carpenter, Dwight Lewis, Chamberlain, Malcolm Collier, Charles Congdon, Jesse Cornplanter, Robert T. Coulter, Myrtle Crouse, Norma Cuthbert, Hazel Dean-John, Vine Deloria, Michael K. Foster, John F. Freeman, Joseph Chamberlain Furnas, Bob Gabor, Charles Garrad, C. Marshall Gorman, Randy Gorske, Barbara Graymont, Jeannette Henry, N. Perry Jemison, Francis Jennings, Randy Alan John, Gertrude Kurath, Weston La Barre, David Landry, Gardiner Lindzey, Floyd G. Lounsbury, Franklin O. Loveland, Charles Lucy, Nancy Lurie, Benjamin Malzberg, Henry Manley, Jane Ann McGettrick, Ernest Miller, Stephen Murray, Oscar Nephew, New York State Library, Niagara County Historical Society, Arthur Caswell Parker, Arthur Piepkorn, Richard Pilant, Susan Postal, V. R. Potmis, Frederic Pryor, Martha Randle, Paul G. Reilly, Egon Renner, Alex and Catherine H. Ricciardelli, Cara Richards, Sally M. Rogow, Anne Marie Shimony, John Sikes, Florence Smith, Mrs. Douglas Snook, Patricia Snyder-Freeman, Frank Speck, George Dearborn Spindler, William Sturtevant, Elizabeth Tooker, Eula Tottingham, Allen W. Trelease, University of Pennsylvania Press, Shirley Vanatta, A. Jeanne Weissinger, C. A. Weslager, and Susan Williams. There is also a great deal on Haudenosaunee peoples in Series II. Research Notes and Drafts, particularly relating to Wallace's monographs on the Tuscarora and Seneca. Subseries A. Indian Research primarily contains Haudenosaunee-related materials, including notes and field notes from research trips to Iroquoia and to archives, copies of and extracts from primary and secondary sources, notes on what Wallace called his "Iroquois Research Project," field notes and materials compiled by Paul A. W. Wallace, etc. There is also some Haudenosaunee material in Subseries B. Revitalization and Culture, mostly in form of secondary sources, including "History of the St. Regis Reservation and several Iroquois pamphlets and drawings" by Mohawk Aren Akweks (aka). Series III. Notecards contains index cards with notes on primary and secondary sources on a range of topics, including Wallace's research interests in revitalization, culture and personality, and his work on Indian land claims, all of which touch on the Haudenosaunee. Several drafts of Wallace's work on the Haudenosaunee and other indigenous peoples can be found in Series IV. Works by Wallace A. Professional, along with fictional works in B. Creative Writing and C. Juvenilia of the same series. Series VI. Consulting and Committee Work A. American Anthropological Association contains two folders labeled "Iroquois Wampum," which contain materials relating to Onondaga demands for the return of wampum belts held by the New York State Museum. Wallace publicly supported the Haudenosaunee, in direct opposition to many scholars, including his friend William Fenton, who argued that the NYSM had saved and maintained the belts and should continue in that role. Correspondence, drafts of Wallace's statement, and other items reveal many factors at play: Vine Deloria, Jr.'s involvement; Haudenosaunee youth involved in the red power movement; inter-tribal divisions about the fate of the belts; scholarly disagreement about how best to serve both Native and non-Native members of the public; ideas about the roles of museums in preserving and protecting cultural materials; anxieties about the implications of Wallace's stance for ethnological museum collections in general; the legal dimensions of deaccessioning bequests; and more. [See Wallace's correspondence with Fenton and others in Series I. Correspondence for more on this issue.] Subseries C. Other Committees of the same series includes files on the Iroquois Conference 1946-1961. Series IX. Indian Claims contains over 50 folders of research materials, dockets, trial memoranda, etc., relating to Wallace's work as an expert witness for Haudenosaunee land claims. Series XI. Maps also contains materials pertaining to Haudenosaunee land claims, as well as to Wallace's personal research. Finally, Series XII. Graphics includes watercolor paintings by Ray Fadden's (Mohawk, aka Aren Akweks) son John (Mohawk, aka Ka-Hon-Hes), original drawings by Seneca Jesse Cornplanter and Tuscarora Nellie Gansworth, and photographs associated with Paul A.W. Wallace's fieldwork among the Indians of Pennsylvania, New York State, and Ontario as well as Anthony F.C. Wallace's research (1947-1985) on American Indians including several photographs of Tuscaroras, Senecas, a cradleboard, and pictographs. Additional material may be found in other places in the collections.
Collection: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64a)

Haudenosaunee | Delaware | Catawba | Cherokee | Houma | Nanticoke | Abenaki | Cayuga | Tutelo | Onondaga | Mohawk | Tuscarora
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Lenape
Language(s): English
Date: 1777-1950, bulk 1914-1950
Type:Text
Extent: 23 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's study of Haudenosaunee history, language, and culture. Includes correspondence with Haudenosaunee consultants like John L. Buck, Seth Newhouse, Josiah Hill, David S. Hill, etc., on topics ranging from the seizure of wampum by the Canadian government, Newhouse's request that Speck secure wampum for him, Newhouse's offer to sell Speck his history manuscript, which he has been working on since 1885 [#1650], Haudenosaunee burial customs, religion, etc.; an essay by Jesse Moses titled "The Long-House man, a Six Nations Indian of Canada speaks his mind," about the relationship of Christianity and the long-house religion; Speck's correspondence with William N. Fenton, principally concerning field work among the Catawba, Cherokee, and Houma but also touching on Fenton's Seneca field work, Speck's various studies of the Haudenosaunee, and the Second Conference on Iroquois Research; correspondence with other anthropologists about various aspects of Haudenosaunee history and culture such as material culture specimens, archaeology, historical sources, agriculture, education, warfare, religion, population statistics, etc.; a draft of Speck's "Reflections on Iroquois religion" and related correspondence; an undated document describing a meeting of Delaware, Nanticoke, and Canadian Iroquois in the presence of Speck and recounting the injustices suffered by Indians in United States and Canada; a copy of a 1777 treaty made by Peter F. Timothy, a Moravian Delaware, in August 1888, and transmitted to Speck by Jesse Moses; and Speck's research notes and other miscellaneous correspondence on topics such as masks, art, museum specimens, hunting territory, chiefships, words, warfare with the Abenaki, the Delaware-as-women theme, academic publications and conferences, etc.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Seneca | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1798-1977, bulk 1941-1977
Extent: 52 folders
Description: The Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers are a vast collection of materials relating to Wallace's work at the intersection of anthropology, psychology, and history. Though further research might yield more results, approximately 52 folders of items directly pertaining to the Seneca have been identified. Seneca materials can be difficult to disentangle from the plethora of items relating to the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) and to Wallace's work on indigenous religions and cultural revitalization more generally. Researchers should therefore also see the Wallace Papers entries for the Haudenosaunee and Tuscarora and consult the finding aid for a detailed discussion of Wallace's career and for an itemized list of the collection's contents. Of the materials explicitly linked to the Seneca, many relate to Wallace's ongoing study of Seneca history and culture. This interest was the basis of several publications, most notably the landmark book "Death and Rebirth of the Seneca" (1970) as well as many articles on Handsome Lake, religion, and cultural revitalization. Such items can be found in Series I. Correspondence, Series II. Research Notes and Drafts, Series XI. Maps, and Series XII. Graphics. Of particular note is Wallace's lengthy correspondence (located in both Series I and II) with historian Merle H. Deardorff regarding Seneca history and culture. There is also some correspondence with Jesse Cornplanter. Other relevant correspondence files include those of the American Philosophical Society, Dwight Lewis Chamberlain, Norma Cuthbert, Vine Deloria, Bob Gabor, Charles Garrad, Randy Gorske, Barbara Graymont, N. Perry Jemison, Randy Alan John, Gertrude Kurath, Weston La Barre, Franklin O. Loveland, Charles Lucy, Nancy Lurie, Ernest Miller, Oscar Nephew, the New York State Library, Arthur Caswell Parker, Arthur Piepkorn, V. R. Potmis, Egon Renner, Mrs. Douglas Snook, Frank Speck, William Sturtevant, Shirley Vanatta, Paul A. W. Wallace, and Susan Williams. Other materials from Wallace's personal scholarship and interests include 3 folders of field notes from Cold Spring in 1951-1952; one folder of items relating to the Kinzua Dam controversy; five folders on the Oh-he-yoh-noh Newsletter of the Allegany Indian Reservation; several copies of and extracts from primary and secondary sources; copies of relevant articles and other and drafts of "Death and Rebirth of the Seneca" and other works. There are also original drawings by Jesse Cornplanter, copies of portraits of Seneca chiefs Cornplanter and Red Jacket, images of "The Chief Red Jacket" and "Squaw of Seneca and Papoose" from the New York Historical Society and a photo of Sarah Pierce of the Allegany Reserve (from Frank Speck) in Series XII. Graphics. Other materials relate to Wallace's work as a researcher and expert witness on behalf of Native American land claims, and include dockets, trial memoranda, and maps relating to "Seneca Nation of Indians and Tonawanda Band of Seneca Indians vs. the United States." These can be found in Series IX. Indian Claims.
Collection: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64a)

Seneca | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1921-1949
Extent: 16 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's interest in Seneca language, history, and culture. Several folders contain correspondence, including one with six letters from Jesse Cornplanter to Speck and others on topics such as his religious beliefs and changes in the way of life; praising Speck; pay for Native consultants; sending Christmas greetings; and husk faces. Other correspondence includes letters from Charles E. Congdon concerning Coldspring Longhouse ceremonies, use of stick and post in dance, Tonawanda and Cattaraugus medicines, congratulating Speck on his Iroquois (1945), describing Alleghany ceremonials, and giving a sketch of the arrangement of participants; from James M. Luongo concerning Seneca and other specimens; from Clara Redeye transmitting a 1941 picture of four generations and sending dolls; from Spencer F. William, a Seneca writer seeking work; from Evangeline Clark sending thanks for reprints, which she had sent to Suffolk University; from Merle H. Deardorff concerning consultant Clayton White, Pennsylvania place names, Speck (1942), and a lengthy discussion of the practices of Handsome Lake adherents; and from Speck to Deardorff concerning an Iroquois conference at Allegany. Other folders contain William N. Fenton's Seneca ceremonial calendar from Coldspring, 131 pages of organized, detailed field notes on ceremonies; Congdon's 4-page essay comparing the religion of Handsome Lake with Judaism and Greco-Roman spirits; Clayton White's description of the one-year death feast; Clayton White's description of a False Face Dance at Coldspring Long House, taken for Deardorff; Speck's miscellaneous notes containing words and two letters from Sherman Redeye to Speck concerning corn-husk masks; Speck's notes on the Oklahoma Seneca with an outline of ceremonials and a chart, with special attention to dances and funerary practices; and Ferdinand Isserman's student paper "Mythology of Seneca Indians."
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Haudenosaunee | Seneca | Cayuga | Seneca-Cayuga
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1798; 1940-1980
Description: The Seneca materials in the Snyderman Papers include information about the Kanzuga Dam, the construction of which displaced 600 Seneca from the lands along the Allegheny River in Series III. A report on the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma in Series IV. The photographs in Series V include images of Longhouses in Allegany and Cold Springs as well as images of Seneca people with whom Synderman worked including Clara and Sherman Redeye, Henry Redeye. Collection includes over one hundred black and white silver gelatin prints, postcards, and color Polaroid of the Allegany Senecas and St. Lawrence Mohawks of New York. Taken by William N. Fenton, Frank Speck, and Snyderman. See also the entry in this guide for general "Haudenosaunee materials, George S. Snyderman Papers".
Collection: George S. Snyderman Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.51)